Gastonia.


Family of ankilosauridae (which are protected under bony armor, armored lizard literally), we can point the Gastonia burgei. A herbivorous whose most notable physical feature was its enormous armor protecting the back of the body and neck and serves as an indication to know your storyline. An armature, a row of spines and bumps that made ​​it impossible to sink your teeth predators. Besides working in packs, and facing a predator joined rows forming impassable reminds African buffalo versus lions.

The characteristics of the excavation where the fossilized bones were found, no one knows exactly the number of spines possessed. Is known is that some reach 50 cm (1,7 ft) in length, therefore, predators should be very careful not to bump into these horns if they did not to lose an eye, or were nailed to the heart or lungs.


In fact, its only weakness was the belly, for that, the predator must rotate in order to reach an area unprotected. Something that is very difficult because the Gatonia was an animal with a very low center of gravity and weighing more than 1000 kg (2204 lb). Length up to 5 meters (7 ft) long, with a tail of 2 meters which it used as a whip and a simple swipe of the tail, was able to knock down a predator.

Found between predators to Utahraptor, which by name and intuit that was in Utah, in the United States. And the Gastonia lived mainly in what is today North America and Europe during the Cretaceous period, about 125 million years ago.



A curiosity about Gastonia. Phylogenetic by this prehistoric animal is the Ornithischia. This animal, known for their muscles, strength and be massive and heavy, shares a similar bird hip, which means bird and ornitheos ischion by hip. But this similarity does not mean anything, is only superficial because birds are from the order Saurischia

Ursus maritimus tyrannus.


The species of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a descendant of the Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi). Appeared 130,000 years ago and has existed until now. But the evolution of the polar bear grizzly bear was not overnight. No went to bed grizzly and polar bear woke up, no. The change was gradual and evolutionary steps were perhaps different. One of them was the Ursus maritimus tyrannus, the Tyrant polar bear. As the name suggests, refers to a large bear, a tyrant as the famous T.Rex.

White Bear tyrant, was larger than its predecessor and its predecessor. We'll see


POLAR BEAR
SIZE:  3 METERS (10 FT.)
WEIGHT: 800-1000 KG ( 1950 - 2200 LB.)
POLAR BEAR TYRANNUS
SIZE: 3,5 METERS (12 FT.)
WEIGHT: 1200-1400 KG  (2100 - 2700 LB.)
GRIZZLY BEAR
SICE: 2,80 METERS (9 FT.)
WEIGHT: 750-1100 KG (1800 - 2050 LB.)



The bear tyrant was the first polar bear and evolved sometime in the Middle Pleistocene. It is believed that the species has evolved about 200,000 years ago from brown bear population which probably to remain insulated by glaciation. It is thought that the number of individuals of the species was scant and could not overcome the competition of species better adapted to the trust as the polar bear. Smaller, and able to feed on smaller creatures and more agile and specialized in ice cold weather and snow.

Although little is known about the diet of this prehistorical animal, it is thought that diet was more similar to the diet of the Grizzly, and therefore was developed as the last ice age, food became scarce, especially the vegetation and other (the polar) better adapted to cold, managed to survive and win the battle for the top of the food chain.



The first bees

A few years ago, an event happened that alarmed the world population: the bees were disappearing. Do not really know why, but I'm sure that human activity played a role, the question is who killed millions of bees, and are still disappearing.

That made ​​me curious enough: there were bees in prehistory, not 10,000 or 15,000 years ago, which we know existed and we know that the honey collected our ancestors, but for many thousands or millions of years.

From the information I have collected I have extracted the following. Prehistoric bees appeared before the appearance of the first humans. The appearance of the first bees (of which there is evidence, the Melittosphex burmensis) dates back about 100 million years. The appearance of these prehistoric bees was a mixture of carnivorous wasps and honey bees now. Their lifestyle was similar to the current bee, living in colonies and you gathered pollen for their young ... or so it seems, a little puzzled because it had features jackets and carnivorous wasps.

Maybe they were omnivores, so I say I'm not an expert, but it is curious that began to develop the first flowers, the most common that we see now, we have then a fruit and then a seed, does just 100 million years, just when bees appeared on Earth ... that chance and effective relationship, after 100 million years, that relationship remains virtually unchanged.
Another curious fact is that since bees first appeared (the Melittosphex burmensis) to the following species of bee on record (Electrapis tornquisti) spent 50 million years ... maybe had not yet developed enough of flowering plants (angiosperms) to accommodate and support to other species of bees .... or maybe, the characteristics of these small carnivorous bees, wasps (3mm) the Melittosphex, allowed them to exterminate their competitors at the time that these appeared ... or maybe, they began to develop new species, these disappeared with the mass extinction of Cretaceous dinosaurs 65 million years ago ....

... curious mystery.

Pachycephalosaurus


Since I can remember I always wanted to know more and more about dinosaurs, more and more, and my atraena me most was the Pachycephalosaurus. In all the pictures I saw when I was little, it appeared this saurian with what to me looked like a piece of shell that had not yet shaken off. Years later, looking around, I discovered that it was a piece of shell, but its head, its skull formidably thick and strong. Able to withstand the strongest thrusts like the shell of a turtle. I also discovered that the name "Pachycephalosaurus" means literally that: lizard or reptile thick head.

The next thing I asked was why on this lizard had this strange head? My first conclusion was that used to hit, to dispute with other males the dominant male position ... do something like bison and bulls have horns or a bony prominence at the top of the skull. Although I'm not sure why, some experts have dismissed this feature ... but then why has a skull with a 25 cm thick? ... Not everyone agrees that the Pachycephalosaurus not have this bulge to beat their opponents. Many people, as I am, ignorant, think that is the most likely explanation. Others think that the issue that brought its bulging head served to intimidate predators.It is true that possibly get, because along the shell, there were numerous small spiny protrusions capable of hurting. Probably, the predator would attack, receive the following message: I'm not very big, I have no fangs or claws, but I have a weapon / protection in the most fragile part of the body .... the neck and head. What is evident is that its thick head was protected its tiny brain blows ... had special protection. So not only seemed difficult to hunt, but also it was.

The only species of this genus was P. wyomingensis and as the name suggests, was found in the state of Wyoming, in the United States. It was a herbivore (or omnivore) of late Cretaceous and may have been represented in this prehistoric animal illustrations and on the horizon the meteorite that ended with most of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago, along with the T.Rex and Triceratops.

Could reach up to 7 meters in length and can weigh nearly 3 tons. Its hind legs were strong, however the front were small and "weak", for this is thought to be traveling in a biped. Tail was robust and heavy to counteract the weight of the head.
The neck was short and sturdy able to sustain its heavy skull (this could be evidence that it received and provoked strong impact with his head). Its teeth were small and elongated (so you think he could be omnivorous small dams).

Although it has long been known to this lizard, about 80 years, there have been few remains that have been found, so talk it over, it might be speculated.

Epidendrosaurus

Now, we know that the transition from reptiles to birds, there was thanks to some small theropods, hunters quickly and nimbly leaping from branch to branch to pounce upon its prey. Increasingly lighter and more agile, were those who had the most jumped protofeathers, who came to the farthest branches and so more prey. Until a jump, went to plan ... a prelude to fly like birds.

One of the clearest examples of these prehistoric animals, with characteristics of birds but without turning it was the Epidendrosaurus, whose name means "lizard on the branches." It is a small theropod maniraptor (hand robber), a taxon whose main feature is the very long, curved fingers ... a feature that served to grip tree branches.

But do not think that the change from reptile to bird was linearly which followed a straight way without errors. The evolution experienced with the species, and species were able to survive for tens of thousands of years and others not, and there is almost no such evidence. But Epidendrosaurus was very successful. In fact, this prehistoric animal lived after the first birds and thousands of years after the first bird which is known Archaeopteryx, this means that even still undergoing evolution and squeezing the characteristics that conditioned the animals, even appeared almost winged reptiles and birds flying when they appeared. The few fossils has been discovered that in the legs and tail feathers had slight marks, similar to those of Microraptor (another small thief).



If we saw now, we look like a bird more than a reptile, if we looked we would see that no beak, but a tiny little mouth full of sharp little teeth and suitable for hunting small reptiles, insects and even mammals were climbing clueless the branches of the trees in late Jurassic. We seem a small bird, it is thought that it was not larger than a dove. The only bones found are young specimens and their skeletons are as big as sparrows.

Sauroniops

Who has not seen The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring? Or The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers? o The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King?, probably all have seen and certainly know who Sauron. The science fiction character created by Tolkien and that is the representation of evil. Its eye is all-seeing, is the eye of the devil on earth.


Well curiously, there was a dinosaur that, when discovered, was baptized with the name of Sauroniops, which means "Eye of Sauron". Personally I look weird, I find it very curious that have given the name of a science fiction character to a prehistoric animal, well known for it. So I've been investigating why this curious name and I discovered something: this saurian bones were found a few years ago, in Morocco (Africa) and at first had only one bone, the top of the skull closed eye and I had conical pyramid shape (reminiscent of Mordor mountain), so researchers, in a moment of inspiration, decided to borrow the name of Sauron for naming this prehistoric animal.

Well, part of this curiosity, how was the Sauroniops?

This was a theropod and theropod. The was a large theropod dinosaurs group with common characteristics such as walking with strong hind legs and essentially carnivores. A group where we can meet other dinosaurs like T-Rex or Giganotosaurus.

The species Sauroniops pachytholus, could reach up to 13 meters (42 ft)  and the skull could exceed 1.5 meters (5 ft) in length. A powerful bite of a mouth full of sharp teeth as knives adapted for tearing the body of their prey.

A physical characteristic that would help to distinguish it from other theropods (and in particular of other Carcharodontosaurios, physically very similar) was the bulge protruding from the top of the skull and that was the inspiration for its name. We look like a small T.Rex but one bump on the head.

Troodon


Now Troodon has thousands of fans who are children of 2-7 years old ... or a little more. Although it was one of the first dinosaurs found, now it gets to know as one of the characters in a cartoon series, a character friendly and fun. But that image is far removed from reality. In fact, "Troodon" name literally means "wounding tooth", so get an idea.


The Troodon belongs to the group of theropods (prehistoric animals with strong back legs). A suborder where we find most frightening terrestrial species of the story ... as the Spinosaurus, Tyrannosaurus rex or Allosaurus. Referring to the teeth, the Troödon were quite different than that of other carnivores mentioned.
The teeth of T. Rex were as heavy knives, however, were those of Troodon elongated narrow and sharp edges saws ideal for tearing flesh.


Indeed, this animal lived in the upper Cretácido became extinct 70 million years *. It was a prehistoric carnivore forests in what is now North America. But it never became an apex predator as their size was relatively small and could not compete with other theropods.


It reminds me a little velociraptor. First because of its size and secondly because they were very similar morphologically. The two, Velociraptor and Troodon, were very close (evolutionarily speaking) birds and probably both had feathers. Although they could not fly ... we leave that to the birds. But maybe it big jumps or even plan a few meters.

The Troodon was twice as large as the velociraptor. Was elongated like this, also agile predator and 1 meter in height and two in length, weighing up to 50 kg. A Trodonte of these, a human could make enough damage or even kill it.

But do not demonize an animal and say it's bad. But if you're a parent and your child likes Troodon, you know it's not the friendly character we see in the series of "Dinosaur Train". He was an active hunter, a predator elongated as a young Komodo dragon but occasionally will put on its back legs.


* If you look at this picture, you will see that next to the Troodon's one of the "Aliens" that were found in Roswell. According to a paleontologist: these alien beings would be the trodontes that survived the mass extinction of dinosaurs and evolved ... Over millions of years evolved and could reach out to Earth, then returned and are in Roswell .... curious ...

Epicyon.



Actually, the largest and heaviest wolves may be found in cold northern areas of America and Asia, including Canada and Alaska and the Russian steppes. Normally, these wolves do not exceed 80 kg (176 lb), when they do it is because we are talking about huge wolves, strong, sturdy and large and possibly have been bred in captivity. However, the size of these big wolves is nothing to what I could weigh the Epicyon. A prehistoric wolf stood at 170 (360 lb)kg.

Their name, Epicyon, means literally "more than a dog". And it really is bigger than a dog, from snout to tail could exceed 2.5 meters (9 ft.)(which dog measure that?). In addition, the Epicyon was part of the subfamily of Borophaginae, a group of ancient canids whose name means "bone crushing dogs", in reference to its strong and resistant teeth can crush the bones of its prey. Something like the teeth of hyenas ... when they had not yet appeared on earth. To get an idea, it has been observed that a wolf has a bite pressure of 270 kg  (590 lb) as much as Epicyon morphology, this was over 600 kg (1322 lb)... we just got to the 80 (176 lb) kg of pressure.


It is thought that these prehistoric animals lived and hunted in packs ... thus achieving a great success in their survival. Stalked and hunted with its teeth large and small prey such as (antique mammoths, deer and the Synthetoceras or calicotéridos). The success of their survival was such that the Epicyon lived thousands of years, millions of years. Exactly 15 million years is one of the top predators. Virtually the entire Miocene Epicyon lived as it appeared 25 million years ago and disappeared for 5 ..... an eternity compared to the survival of the species homo sapiens.


PERMIAN EXTINCTION.

Evolution along the time has not followed a linear increase. The diversity and number of species and individuals increase and decrease depending on the environment of each historical moment and sometimes abruptly. Evolution has had many ups and downs and as at some times, the Earth could be proud of the number of animals that lived in the past in this life has been about to disappear altogether. We are talking about the great extinctions. Surely you know the extinction that ended the hegemony of big lizards, which ended with the T-Rex or Triceratops, perhaps because the nearest extinction and we have seen in many documentaries. This extinction which is popularly known as the extinction of the dinosaurs, and occurred in the Cretaceous 65 million years ago, exterminated 40% of life on Earth. Maybe we think a lot, 40% of human life on Earth would end up with almost 3,000 million people, with for example, all people living in the southern hemisphere, but if we look at the mass extinctions that have occurred , there is a very important extinction: the mass extinction of Permian-Triassic. This was the extinction that nearly destroyed of life on Earth.


The Permian extinction wiped out more than 70% of life on earth, and 95% of marine life. To continue with absurd comparisons, it is as if they disappeared all people in the world, except those who live in Mexico ... for example.
Disease, starvation, earthquakes, catastrophic weather events were the survivors had to endure 250,000,000 years ago.

And what were the largest causes of extinctions on Earth?

There are several theories about the causes of extinction, and as we discuss all take a long time, we discuss only the experts think that possible: Meteorite and Volcanism Theory.

250 million years ago, there were on Earth, exactly in which today is Siberia a continuing series of Mega volcanoes spewing material from the bowels of the planet for thousands and thousands of years (80,000 years). These surface megavolcanes threw 4 million km3 of lava. About 40,000 times the Krakatoa.


The CO2, lava, pyroclastic flows from volcanoes and other gases could increase the temperature of the Earth, it is estimated that in 5th.

Now comes the second part of the theory ... rather the first. A few years ago discovered a large crater on Antarctica, exactly what is known as Wilkes Land. This crater has a diameter of 450 km and it is estimated that the meteorite that caused it could measure almost 50 km (nearly 5 times more than the meteor that killed the dinosaurs.)


The meteorite discovered, made ​​a great impact on our planet, for example, separated Australia from Antarctica when they were together and formed the Gondwana continent 250 million years ago ... 250 million years, precisely the date on which occurred the volvanes. That's why many experts geologists attribute the origin of these supervolcanoes the ripple effect that could produce the meteorite on Earth.

Of course, along with supervolcanoes, the effect of the meteorite caused further increase in global temperature. It is thought that up to 12 degrees to increase the temperature of sea water, produced from melting methane hydrate deposits, which by pressure and cold were in solid state. Following this event was intoxicated marine life slowly almost to extermination.

This is summarized and anyone interested will easily find more information about it. Finally, say that the Permian extinction wiped out some prehistoric animals known as Scutosaurus, the DIMETRODON or Inostrancevia or insects as Meganeuropsis.



But thanks to what is perhaps the fate, life continued and developed further evolution to what we know today: the human species ... the last great extinction.

Megatherium

I'm surprised that after writing more than 200 prehistoric animals, we still have not spoken of Megatherium, prehistoric animal that existed until 8000 years ago and, a

The Megatherium was a big herbivore, like a Sloth of the currently but giant. As a the sloths current, the Megatherium also eat the foliage. But the latter did not climb into the branches, mostly because it weighed over 5 tons (imagine an elephant up to the branch of a baobab, the same impression as the Megatherium would see in a tree). As measured 6 meters and stood on two legs reached the treetops and branches pulled down with their huge claws. Lately, is considering the option that it was an omnivorous animal, and also eating tons of leaves and branches, ever eat carrion or some unsuspecting animal ... because seeing how robust your bones and weight of this animal, we can not say it was a hunter agile, stealthy and fast.


This prehistoric animal was so large that a healthy individual was not able to kill any predator. Maybe some guy old, young or injured could fall prey to a group of giant hyenas, wolves, saber tooth or some Arctodus or cave bear.

The Megatherium, appeared on Earth 3 million years ago between the Pliocene and Pleistocene and disappeared 8,000 years ago in Central and South America. It is believed that the main cause of their extinction was the proliferation of a dangerous animal, a predator insatiable .... I speak human being.

In this video we will see that this prehistoric animal was not as shy as its relative the current lazy ...



What you do not know what is below. ????



 Well, it is a cave that was excavated by a megaterio and served as den / shelter . This in particular is about 200 m long and was excavated about 20,000 years ago .



Scutosaurus

The Scutosaurus was a prehistoric animal whose name means "reptile shield", referring to the protective layer of the skin formed by bony plates that covered much of the body. Of course, this shield had a protective purpose, its aim was to keep intact the internal parts of the attack Scutosaurus the sharp teeth of his hunters. And this saurian predators tremendous teeth were similar to the saber-toothed tiger. Most were gorgonópsidos, family of which we speak when we name the Inostranceva. A predator which we discussed two weeks ago, LINK.

The Scutosaurus lived during the Permian, 250 million years ago, and their remains have been found in what is now Asia. A continent 250 million years ago, was part of the great supercontinent Pangea.


It was a very large herbivorous reptile. Heavy, more than 500 kg. Was 2.5 meters (8 ft,) long and 1.5 (5 ft.) high. Unlike other reptiles they have their feet on the sides of the body, the Scutosaurus had under its robust body in order to keep that huge weight concentrated. They were also short, so it is understood that not run very fast (certainly more than men). I had the legs on the trunk and they were short would give the less interesting look ... if we saw it from afar, may seem a boar that had taken growth hormones ... or better yet, a giant toad ... anyway. He also had two small horns emerging from its lower jaw and pointed down. The aim of these horns was to protect the neck from those predators who try to hurt the most fragile part of the body: the neck.


Permian These animals were very numerous and found numerous fossils can complete several skeletons. Would be something like the wildebeest of the African savannah. A very large number of wildebeest that serves as food for many of the predators of the savanna. But unlike the African wildebeest, the Scutosaurus lived in small groups, think. Since maintaining that rugged body continually needed to eat grass, and knowing that during the Permian as the main feature was the desert climate, it is thought that this ancient lizard had to travel long distances to find food. If they would formed very elevated groups, had ended with the vegetation of the area very quickly, forcing them to find another that could be fertile ground for miles ... being counterproductive.


The Inostrancevia.


The Permian period ended 250 million years ago, is the characteristic period of the great explosion of different vertebrates, also terrestrial wildlife and the emergence of future ancestors of mammals as we (and you too) and also the ancestors of past and prehistoric reptiles such as dinosaurs.

Our ancestor while superpredator of the Permian period was a Gorgonops (Gorgonopsid, a family of reptiles which is really more a mamíferol). How I explained earlier bad, if we saw a Gorgonops, probably would think it is a reptilian, but really its features are unique to mammals, such as hot blood ... in fact, it is considered our distant ancestor and that we are descended from it ... and you too.


Well, the largest Gorgonops, the superpredator of the period was the Inostrancevia (any of the 3 species). It was a hunter well developed, nearly 4 meters (13 ft.) in length. Intelligent compared with other creatures of the Permian. It walked to 4 legs, and moved similarly to the Komodo dragon, though its legs kept it at a slightly higher position and not dragged belly. Being able to reach higher speeds and close to 50 km / h.

The skull measured up to 50 cm and had teeth similar to the saber-toothed tiger ... fangs longer than about 15 cm, sharp and ready to hunt their prey. Besides its jaws were very powerful and with the force of its bite crossed Scutosaurus skin, the largest herbivore and was covered by a hard shell crossing.

Although extinct in the late Permian, about 250 million years ago, in the mass extinction of the Late Permian and early Triassic. We know enough of them. The numerous remains were discovered over 100 years ago in what is now Russia. And his name "Inostrancevia" refers to the famous Russian geologist A. Inostranceva.


STYRACOSAURUS


Within the family of ceratopsidae (those horned animals that lived in the prehistory), we can find some animals we know. Since Torosaurus (large and with two horns) to the Eotriceratops, Triceratops (always represented fighting a T. Rex and three horns) and Pentaceratops (smaller than the other two but with 5 horns) ...

As you can see, in this short list you can see that the number of horns increases between 2 and 5. At the end of the list more would see the ceratopsian horns, Styracosaurus, the protagonist of this entry.

The name means lizard Styracosaurus horns.

It had a horn on the front of the head, one big and long, but most of the horns, to which its name refers, are those found in the "wheel" of the head, a bone coating that protects the neck. A hedge that protects the neck from predators carnivores such as T. Rex. But the horns of Styracosaurus, not small bony protuberances, horns are up to 60 cm long and 15 cm wide at the base. This contained the snacks in the neck and the same also used for exposing himself to females.

So, this herbivore than 3 tons and 6 meters long would be therefore difficult to kill prey. Fossils found dead near ceratopsidae Tiranosauros like Styracosaurus who have tried to hunt. Hunt In Styracosaurus, T. Rex could be gored to death.

The horns and shells daubed the neck, the most vulnerable part of the animal, predators could not bite the neck without risk a fatal goring. The predator hunting tactics would try to turn the Styracosaurus and put belly up, where the T.Rex would find the most soft, unprotected part and away from the huge antlers.

This large herbivorous mid Cretaceous lived in what is now North America. And from afar, remind us a huge rhino with large spiked collar and long tail. Indeed, like other ceratopsidae, had a mouth shaped peak finished ... psittacosaurus reminds me.


PSITTACOSAURUS.


Somewhere in Asia where we now find Mongolia, 100 million years ago (Cretaceous) there was a genre of curious animal called a Psittacosaurus "parrot lizard".


A bipedal lizard 2 meters long, with special characteristics that made it look somewhat freaky. Its mouth was toothless in general, although some species did have small sharp teeth to devour the new flowering plants that appeared for the first time in mid-Cretaceous. Its mouth closed with a strong peak like that of a parrot and hence the name Lizard Papagayo. A peak bone, a protuberance of the skull finished with keratin (like rhino horn) that provided a hardened tip and sharp as that of a parrot.



The other peculiarity of this animal is that its tail and back were covered with tubular and hollow bristles. One thinks bristles served as a peacock tail.

Walking on two hind legs, had tubular and hollow bristles as protofeathers, the parrot-like beak and normal ... now would wonder if it was related to birds. And the answer is NO. In fact, and this certainly surprise you, is related to the Triceratops or Eotriceratops. (Ceratopsia)
Animals heavy, clumsy, weighing several tons and with horns, one, three or even five. But if you look at the representations that have been made in the fossils found, we see that these large animals ... also have beaks.

Albertosaurus.


I often think that the experts not too fussed for naming dinosaurs. For example, if they find a lizard in Alberta (a province of Canada), as they call Albertosaurus. Well, I'm no expert and I guess that is a valid way to classify other prehistoric animals.

And how was Albertosaurus? Well, this animal had many curious things. For example, Albertosaurus was a fearsome hunter, its bite while being less potent than the T.Rex, was very powerful, as well as the largest of the crocodiles, which are animals with bite even more powerful live.
We could say it was like a smaller version of Tyrannosaurus, but not that much less effective as a predator. Because when weighing 2 tons (nearly half of T. Rex), Albertosaurus could be quicker, faster and agile. An estimated could exceed 50 km / h (31 mi/h)... To get an idea, Usain Bolt (the fastest man in the world) reaches 37 km / h (22 mi/h).


The dimensions of this predator prehistoric were:

Weight: up to 2 tons (4400 lb).
Length: 10 meters (33 ft).
Skull: 1.2 meters (4 ft).
Height: 3.5 meters (10 ft).

As you see, it was so small, was a smaller version of T.Rex, and in fact, the only impediment to not become the apex predator of the late Cretaceous in North America, was this, that the T.Rex occupied that position.

Other characteristics of Albertosaurus was that had small arms, hardly useless.
Also had bony protrusions on the eyes which had the role of protecting the eye when producing its deadly bite.
And finally, have sharp teeth on the inside a form lumber, this allowed it to tear the flesh once bitten and pulled with his strong neck.
Albertosaurus really is the name of a genus and now consists of three species, but the most representative was Arctunguis Albertosaurus.

Thylacosmilus and curious history.

When there are two animals that are very similar in weight, size, physical characteristics and occupying the same ecological niche but living in different places and have a different origin, we call this phenomenon convergent evolution. An example would be that we can illustrate the flight of pterodactyls and bats, both fly in a similar way but come from families, genera and different orders.



Well, now let's focus on the case of Thylacosmilus ... if we saw in reality, across the road in front of our house, we might seem an early saber-toothed, a prehistoric Smilodon... But although its appearance was similar, their underclass, order, family, are different Sabertooth Tiger. The Thylacosmilus had nothing to do with the Smilodon, was actually a marsupial and even looked like Sabretooth, was evolutionarily closer to that of a kangaroo Sabretooth we know.

This prehistoric animal appeared in South America about 7 million years ago, when it was an island that was separate from North America. It was stocky, though not enough the Smilodon, as large as the current Cougars and had fangs shaped knives about 15 cm, but unlike the Smilodon, Thylacosmilus fangs did not stop growing. In addition, the fangs are embedded in a cavity having the jaw bone and giving it a very peculiar appearance to its skull. In fact, its name means "pouch saber", referring to this feature.
Possibly be true that were the apex predator in South America, but this lasted until which lasted insulation island continent. This occurred in the late Pliocene and Central America new species were introduced from the north, including a saber-toothed cat but also bigger, more corpulent and willing to put at the top of the food chain. The Thylacosmilus rival, the known Smilodon, had arrived and soon took the place of the predator.

Pterygotus



Let's go back years and years in time. The prehistoric animal that will star in this entry not lived 10,000 years ago, or 100,000 years, or even 1 million years .... but rather 450 million years.

It was a time that called Silurian. The global warming favored that, the seas conquer large tracts of land, warm oceans where practically developed  all complex life on the planet.

This was a perfect time for evolution to experiment with new designs then, with time, while some disappeared, others survive led to the major groups (phyla) that we could find on our planet.

At that time, the arthropods were the kings who ruled over the other species. Vertebrates, molluscs, etc ... everyone had to live under their mandates. And among all arthropods, the largest, the great superpredators were Pterygotus. A genus of extinct arthropods are also known by the name of marine scorpions or giant scorpions.


Along with rhenaniae Jaekelopterus the Pterygotus is considered one of the largest animals of the time. Could exceed 2.3 meters in length, was 8 legs for move around the ocean floor, 2 paws to help him swim (though swim with the movement of your body) and then another 2 paws finished alligator clips that were useful to catch and hold their prey while devouring. His body elongated and armored. It had a good vision as it had two eyes "normal" and two more compounds eyes .... such as flies. Also, if for whatever reason, did not find prey in coastal areas, rivers wealthy could trace to find them.

Along with rhenaniae Jaekelopterus the Pterygotus is considered one of the largest animals of the time. Could exceed 2.3 meters in length (8 ft.), was 8 legs for move around the ocean floor, 2 paws to help him swim (though swim with the movement of your body) and then another 2 paws finished alligator clips that were useful to catch and hold their prey while devouring. His body elongated and armored. It had a good vision as it had two "normal" eyes and two more compounds eyes .... such as flies. Also, if for whatever reason, did not find prey in coastal areas, rivers wealthy could trace to find them.

It was so effective, so successful of its body design, this prehistoric animal Silurian, lived over 30 million years.

The disappearance of Pterygotus was due to the evolution of vertebrates. When they appeared strong and powerful armored fish bites (as Dunkleosteus) able to smash the outer shell of this prehistoric arthropod.

Woolly rhinoceros


Just as the mammoth, the woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta) was a prehistoric animal of a cold and dry climate typical of the last glaciation. It was great for retaining better heat also had a long horn and leaning forward to remove the snow and reach the food and a double mane of long, thick hair on the outside and a thin layer inside that isolated it from the cold. The truth is that it was a survivor of that hostile climate and long winters survived in the cold, lonely steppes of Eurasia. From Spain to China. And our forefathers could see.

As is the case with the current rhino, woolly rhinoceros was a strong animal, hard and grumpy, it was awesome. In fact it is thought that in their extinction, 8,000 years ago, the man was not a decisive role. Was mainly due to the disappearance of their habitat was not Neanderthals hunted nor old nor homo sapiens populations. How to drive a spear into an animal with a fat layer of 30 cm, and a hard coat like a wild boar, but much longer and abundant? Yes, you could, but much nearing.

However, experts have observed in well-preserved bones, there were marks of predators. Agile and fast predators that hunted in packs, such as wolves and hyenas.

The size of this rhino of the ice age was a bit higher than any current rhino. Although I must say that some species were slightly smaller.

For example, woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) was the largest species. It measured more than 4 meters long and 2 meters high at the withers, its weight exceeded 4 tons. It had two horns, the largest could reach a meter in length and was holding a large and heavy head that simultaneously was supported by some powerful muscles that were inserted and formed the hump and characteristic of these animals.
Another species that should be noted is the Tibetan woolly rhino. This, as its name indicates lived in Tibet, over 3,000 meters high. This prehistoric animal is the oldest known (3.5 million years ago) and possibly other species evolved the Tibetan woolly. This on the theory that these animals evolved into Tibetan steppes of China and Mongolia.

Archaeopteryx




Archaeopteryx is the oldest known bird. While the Microraptor is considered a dinosaur with feathers like a bird, Archaeopteryx is already a bird. The first bird ... Jurassic.
They are very similar, are common features of other theropods: bone thing, sharp claws, beak with small but sharp teeth and feathers, both forelimbs and hind.

But unlike Microraptor, Archaeopteryx flew better, not only was involved in planning from branch to branch. Perhaps its flight is not elegant as the an albatross or as fast as a swift, but was the first to fly. and that is a lot. Possibly its fly mode would seem very strange if we saw now. Archaeopteryx also had long feathers on the hind legs, along with feathers front, it flew in a strange mode. Some think that because of this, was more agile in flight modern birds, but their ability to fly long distances would be less.

Not very big, measuring just 35 cm, and weighed just under 500 gr. Its brain was proportionally greater than other theropods and structure of his ear and was similar to that of modern birds.

We could say that its size was similar to that of a magpie .... Consider the differences:


Incidentally, the Velociraptor, is a close relative.
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