Showing posts with label prehistoricanimal. Show all posts
Showing posts with label prehistoricanimal. Show all posts

Anomalocaris.


During the Cambrian explosion of life (for about 525-510 millions years. Up to this point had not been very successful multicellular life) appeared the first predator to bite, was the Anomalocaris. The biggest predator of the Cambrian seas. Measure up to 1 meter and its name means "strange shrimp."

Possibly it was given this name because when they discovered the fossils were so strange that they thought of three different animals.

It had a segmented body, such as some crustaceans and a current "arms" armed with thorns, compound eyes (with a very developed on their prey, but not entirely confirmed). The mouth was circular and had 32 overlapping layers (four large and 28 small) equipped with small barbs which failed serrated rings around a central opening. With his arms gripping the defenseless Pikaia or trilobites and pounding and crushing.




Like trilobites, the Anomalocaris was an arthropod, bony internal skeleton had not, this was a protection mechanism, a cuticle or exoskeleton made of chitin and proteins such as cuticulina.



Curiosity: A recently described a new species closely related to Cambrian Anomalocaris the Hurdia victoria.

Is it possible to resurrect prehistoric animals?



Is it possible to resurrect prehistoric animals?

If we refer to dinosaurs as depicted in the film Jurassic Park, it seems that currently it is impossible not to resuscitate. While experts are very excited to think that in future it may be.
Apparently it has been able to recreate a living ... but very simple ... is actually a bacteria. Pour bacteria (Mycoplasma mycoides) is the first time you create a synthetic life form. To achieve this, the researchers built a machine in his laboratory every one of the basic units of DNA of the bacteria 'Mycoplasma mycoides' and assembled as if it were a Mecano. Once assembled the intricate puzzle, emptied a cell of another species of bacteria and introduced the synthetic genetic code in the cell container. And that's it ...
But of course, there are limitations:

1st - The Pour bacteria is very simple, basically a membrane genome, but in more complex organisms the DNA is packaged in the nucleus. And no one, until now, has been able to empty the heart and inject DNA into the interior.

2 - DNA sequences tend to deteriorate over time, and it is very difficult to draw a complete map of animals that lived millions of years could be the known T-rex. However there are other prehistoric animals, and extinct, are possible candidates ... as recently extinct and has obtained a DNA map comlete. Saber-toothed tigers, mammoths, cave bears, Tasmanian tiger, woolly rhinoceros, giant sloth and even our cousins the Neanderthals. All of them disappeared less than 100,000 years ago.

3 - There must be akin to a living animal which wants to revive, for example, to the mammoth elephant would be required to insert the embryo. But of course, to resurrect the kind of Neanderthal what it would take would be a woman. And this will bring much discussion and many different opinions, which I think could be done though, many voices that would oppose it.

4 - The environmental conditions of animals are now missing, in some cases, nonexistent. And basically serve as scientific purposes. There are no dams Sabretooth or frozen grass to keep Mammoth.

Well, I always think I conclude with this question: If you could resurrect a Neanderthal, what do you think think a Neanderthal resurrected in our world?

The famous Bear-dog or Amphicyon


Imagine the world's largest wolf, and now doubling in size, finally give steroids to duplicate the musculature. Throw in claws bigger than a grizzly with a strong legs to run and reach high speeds ... That leaves us? As a predator that existed from the mid-Oligocene and early Miocene. His name was Amphicyon ingens (dog ambiguous) or commonly known as Bear-dog.
This prehistoric beast could be up to three meters and weigh up to 400 kg. Given its size, you might think was not very fast, but do not be fooled, it is thought that hunted their prey in ambush and surprised with a quick career. The smell was due to an as refined as a bloodhound and a fine ear. Type of game similar to the great bears today. He could hunt animals as robust as the old giant sloths or rhinos.

He lived in Europe and Asia and later introduced in North America by the Bering Strait (humans migrated from Asia to the Americas through the strait, possibly taking advantage of a glacial period and the freezing of the Sea) competition in North America other carnivorous even more ... the Daeodon or "terrible pig."

Abelisaurus or Abel's lizard



At the end of the Cretaceous period in what is now South America, approximately between 83 and lived 80 million years ago the "Abel's lizard" or Abelisaurus. With a skull up to a meter and sharp teeth this carnivorous predator of between 7 and 9 meters (25 to 30 feet)long and weighed about 3000 kilograms, were living with other predators such as known Tyrannotitan or Carnotauros, fierce competitors for the same prey as old tyrannotitanes patients. The Carnotaurus, was probably a abelisaurid early, scientists assume that Abelisaurus also had front legs short and slender limbs.



The discovery of Abelisaurus is important because it sheds light on many theropods (carnivorous diet and walking biped with three fingers to the front and provided with sharp claws) than the southern hemisphere that were very different from their relatives in the northern hemisphere. This was the result of the separation of land masses of North and South that began in the Jurassic period.
Not go into the morphological differences ... anyone who wants to know them I invite you to search Wikipedia.

Hyena giant or Pachycrocuta Brevirostris.


Famous is the force that have the jaws of the hyenas that can reach pressures of 350 kg (600lb)and teeth grinding of hard bones and teeth and hooves. Well, now imagine a hyena twice as big, twice as strong and a powerful jaw twice ... this animal there was Pachycrocuta brevirostris.



Pachycrocuta a genus of prehistoric hyenas. The largest specimen, well-documented part of the species of giant hyenas Pachycrocuta brevirostris. With a height of 1 meter (39 in) and weigh up to 120 kg (250 lb).Un similar in size to a small lioness.
This size would make it the largest of the hyenas that have ever lived. He lived from the Middle Pliocene and Middle Pleistocene, about 3 million and 500,000 years ago.
Found fossils in Eurasia and southern and eastern Africa. In dens, caves used as dens.
Scavenger and a predator could be stubborn and tenacious to deer hunting big and small package was probably a hunter of large animals (up to larger deer and occasionally as Megaloceros). The chance of a scavenger is sensed it was a very big animal not built for chasing prey over long distances. In this aspect would have differed from today spotted hyena, which is a more agile animal that, contrary to his image of the documentaries, also kills his own food. Apparently it was ecologically close enough to the smaller (but still important) in relation perrieri Pliocrocuta never found as fossils contemporaries in the same region.

This is a very beautiful reconstruction extracted qi.com

Cheetah Giant or Acinonyx pardinensis

The problem that presents itself now is the cheetah who specializes in speed, his muscles has focused on this goal. That's why the dams are often stolen by other predators such as lions, hyenas, leopards even African dogs. Well, there was an ancestor who lived in the Quaternary, the Pleistocene (over 1 million years) and with a size twice as large as the current cheetah, reaching weigh over 120 kg (264 lbs)and over 2 meters long excluding the tail(6 feet 3 inches). High BMI, used more nails (in comparison with modern cheetahs), suggesting that it was less suited to high speed, although it is believed that he could reach over 70 mph(lower than the current but faster than everyone else cats. We must remember that current Cheetahs reach speeds of 115 km / h.
But this theory suggested by the great weight is offset by the antithesis: you think you might be even more than the current cheetah because its legs were of a larger size.
Because of its bulk, it needs to go very fast after prey. Deer, mountain goats, moose and sambar (deer species) were their prey.
It is thought that went extinct 10,000 years ago.

Ultrasauros.


These amazing animals are among the heaviest dinosaur that ever lived. Although his body resembled that of other sauropods, surpassed in size to most of its peers. It was about 25 times heavier than a giraffe long as three buses and as tall as a six-story building. Its neck and tail, incredibly long, were supported by a backbone like a grill. At the sides of the vertebrae, there were some openings that reduce weight without weakening his back. Most of the weight of its giant dinosaur bore members. Therefore, major bones were the blades, connecting the front legs with the body. The was large and strong, each of them would be higher than a soccer goal. His back was lower than their shoulders, as the hind legs were shorter than the front. When grazing among the plants and bushes, swinging his long neck in all directions. It could reach the juicy leaves of higher tops and low ferns. I needed lots of vegetation, cutting his teeth beveled. For easier digestion, probably swallowed small rocks that were deposited in your belly and helped to turn plants into pulp. Although hard to imagine, experts have suggested that brachiosaurids like this, roamed in herds slowly advancing. Surely the ground shake under their feet. The sheer size of an animal as this dinosaur probably deterred most predators living at the time. But if one is away from the bequest, was exposed to grave danger. On the inside of his legs, like those of elephants, had a sharp claw. With an accurate kick and a flick of its tail flexible, could bring down his enemy. Measuring up to 30 meters long and a little more than 15 high. It lived about 145 million years, at the end of the Jurassic period in North America.

Curious: There is another dinosaur called Ultrsaurus, but not the same, is smaller and fossils found in Asia.

Henodus chelyops.


Henodus chelyops ("Turtle-Faced Single Tooth") was a placodont of the Late Triassic period during the Carnian stage. Fossils of Henodus chelyops were found in Tübingen, Germany. It was around 1 metre (3.3 ft) in length.
Henodus was the placodont that had the greatest (albeit superficial) resemblance to a turtle. Like turtles, it had a shell formed from a plastron on the underside and a carapace on top. The carapace extended well beyond the limbs, and was made up of individual plates of bony scutes covered by plates of horn. However, the shell was composed of many more pieces of bone than that of turtles, forming a mosaic pattern. The armor was fused to its spine, and its limbs were situated in normal positions, unlike the turtle, where they are located inside the ribcage. The weak limbs of Henodus suggest it spent little, if any time on land.
Henodus chelyops also had a single tooth on each side of its mouth, though the remaining teeth were replaced by a beak. These teeth were flat to crush bottom dwelling shellfish. The head was squared-off at the front, just ahead of the eyes.
Henodus is the only placodont thus far found in non-marine deposits, suggesting it may have lived in brackish or freshwater lagoons.

Therizinosaurus


The Therizinosaurus was a bipedal animal with vicious prehistoric claws was found in Mongolia (Asia)
THE Therizinosaurus measuring up to 12 m long. His weight was up to 6 tons. The total arm measured 2.5 meters long, and his only scythe-shaped claw measuring 70 centimeters in outer curve. That length does not include the horny covering that must have surrounded the claw, with which it could reach up to 1 meter long.

Therizinosaurus ( "scythe lizard") lived in the Cretaceous (for about 70 to 65 million years in the Maastrichtian).

He lived together with other prehistoric animals like the striking resemblance and Erlikosaurus Segnosaurus.

Are unknown Therizinosaurus eating habits. These are unknown as fossils found in was not found remains that may determine your diet. He may have been herbivorous although the claws may be possessed for the struggle to defend territory or to mate, even to defend themselves from predators like the Tarbosaurus.

Megalosaurus.


Megalosaurus was a predator of some up to 10 meters long and weighing 1 t. He lived in what is now Europe, America, Asia and Africa during the Jurassic period, 181 made 169 million years.
Among their prizes were sauropods, large prehistoric animals and stegosaurs and mammals.
Besides being a fast predator, with speeds that could reach 40 km / h thanks to its well-balanced structure, the Megalosaurus also got their food scavenging.
The Megalosaurus was one of the first dinosaur discoveries, England 1818. At that time, and seeing the fossils found, these bones were so enormous that gave its name Megalosaurus (great lizard).
The jaw of Megalosaurus had teeth long and curved, strongly subject to the gums to avoid losing in the struggle. The teeth were sharp with the corrugated edge that worked like a saw. Ripping a more efficient prey.
To make matters worse, had prehistoric animal with sharp claws and tear that held the hard skin of the victims.

Josephoartigasia monesi



Josephoartigasia monesi was a giant prehistoric rodent from the Pliocene, the largest known to date. It is estimated that between four and lived two million years in what is now Uruguay. It is an extinct species of rodent and as said the largest rodent in history.

The species measured approximately 3 m long and 1.5 m high. In life they were about the size of a car. Their incisors were more than 30 cm long. The animal weighed about a ton, and fed on soft grasses.

The fossil (the skull), more than half a meter, it belonged to a species closely related to the current hamsters, and found the first skull of an animal that was known to have existed but over which he had of remains found.

Among their predators can find the cave lion and Smilodon.

Velociraptor.



To be a Velociraptor dromaeosaurid was relatively small, the adults reach a length of 2 m, and approximately 0.5 meters in height at the hip, and weighing about 15 kg. The skull, about 25 cm long, was uniquely up-curved, with a concave upper surface and a convex bottom. The jaws were lined with 26 or 28 teeth on each side, the rear edge of each tooth was markedly serrated.
But of all the features that made the Velociraptor a murderer efficient and sharp curved claws were the most dangerous. Located on the second toe of each foot, these claws were a fine point and were flattened laterally, like the claws of a cat. When the Velociraptor ran, stretched claws held back so as not touching the ground and did not lose their edge.
When the Velociraptor attack, the claw could project forward and down while HADB a strong kick. Thus, the claw could act as a razor-sharp knife and result in protracted and deep cuts in their prey, probably bleed to death.
Velociraptor is well known in his role as a cruel and cunning murderer may attack small offspring from larger dinosaurs such as Triceratops.

Velociraptor (meaning "swift thief") in Castilian Velociraptor, is a dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived during the Campanian to the late Cretaceous period, makes about 70 to 65 million years. On the mainland, which is in Europe and Asia.

Iguanodon


This was a robust animal prehistoric herbivore that could switch between bipedal to quadrupedal. The well-known species, I. bernissartensis, it is estimated that weighed about 3 tons on average, and measure about 10 feet long when adult, with some specimens possibly would have reached 13 meters.
The arms were long, up to 75% of the length of the legs with inflexible hands built so that the three central fingers could bear weight.

One of the first details on the iguanodons noticed was that I had reptile herbivore teeth (Iguanodon means "Iguana tooth" as they were of a similar but larger and with a greater destructive capacity) although there was not always consensus on how to eat .

There is no evidence to support a sexual dimorphism, as in hadrosaurs and Ceratopsia.

It is thought that they lived in herds of several dozen individuals as fossils have been found in certain circumstances, several bodies Iguanadon in ancient lakes or rivers, possibly due to the flood of these during migration.

They lived in the early Cretaceous period, makes about 130 to 120 million years (mong the Berriasian and Aptian) in what is now Europe. And in North America.



The scion of thumb is one of the best known features of the iguanodons. Yet it was placed, initially, in the nose by Mantell. When they found the complete copies in Bernissart Dollo realized the mistake and I put in place fingerprint, thumb amended.

Hyracotherium

Hyracotherium (beast like a Hyrax), also known as Eohippus, is a genus of mammal Perissodactyla Palaeotheriidae family.

It is considered an ancestor of the horse, rhinoceros and tapir. It is a quadruped animal that lived in the Northern Hemisphere (Asia, Europe and North America) during the Eocene period, makes 60 to 45 million years. The line to the existing horse evolució through the following animals Preistorica: Oligohippus, Merichippus, Pliohippus. In chronological order.



Hyracotherium was a small herbivore the size of a fox, media cross about 35 inches and weighed 6 kg, had four toes on the forefeet and three on hind paws protected, the central one being longer. These animals were already clearly like the horse, despite its small size and probably lived in forests browsing. His teeth were adapted for the consumption of young leaves of the bushes and his eyes were different from modern horses as they were located more to the center of the head preventing a good side vision (which in the modern horse serves as defensive system), Eohippus but did not need because in the jungle environment in which they lived, was more effective camouflage to avoid predators.

Hyaenodon.


Hyaenodon ( 'hyena's tooth ") is an extinct genus of mammals of the order of creodonts. Some species of this genus were among the largest terrestrial carnivorous mammals.

These predators were as big as a rhinoceros. Appeared in the late Eocene 41 million years ago, during the Oligocene to exist 21 million years ago.

Was the dominant predator of the time, even have discovered remains of saber-toothed feline powerful victim Hyaenodon.

The name "hyena teeth" refers to its pontente bite and hardness of his teeth. Being able to eat all parts of the dam, including the teeth.

His skull was long and narrow. The body was similar to the recently extinct Tasmanian wolf, Thylacinus. But larger.

At the time competed against Entelodon. I put a video showing that competition for food.


Glyptodon



The glyptodon, always connected with existing armadillos, a native of America. The glyptodon measured about 3 m and weighed about 1.4 t, being equivalent in size and shape to a Volkswagen Beetle. It was a herbivore and, by its constitution, it is assumed that it was not very agile. His defense against predators was based on its rigid shell. Different species are distinguished by different types of shells. Many of these shells remained empty throughout the plains of Uruguay and Argentina will likely serve as a refuge for early humans in the region.

The glyptodon is part of the group of placental mammals known as Xenarthra. This order of mammals includes armadillos, as well as several extinct species.

The glyptodon emerged in the Pliocene in South America, migrating north after, when the Isthmus of Panama joined the Americas. It is believed that they were hunted by human populations in their environment, to use the carcasses of dead animals as a refuge from hostile environments. Became extinct about 10,000 to 8,500 years.



The glyptodontes oldest known lived in the early Tertiary and were not very large. After appearing species were becoming larger, until in the Quaternary, when there were also megatherium, there were real giants who roamed in what is now Patagonia Argentina. They had a great half-shell shaped eggshell consists of many hexagonal shaped plates, round, etc.., He was locked below the animal's body with a sturdy skeleton, had a long tail, some species, finished off with barbed thick and compact.

Dunkleosteus


Dunkleosteus, measuring up to 10 metres (33 ft) and weighing 3.6 tonnes (4.0 short tons), was a hypercarnivorous apex predator. Few other placoderms, save, perhaps, its contemporary, Titanichthys, rivaled Dunkleosteus in size.

Instead teeth, Dunkleosteus possessed two pairs of sharp gnathal plates which formed a beak. After studying a biomechanical model of the fish's jaws, scientists at the Field Museum of Natural History and the University of Chicago concluded that Dunkleosteus had the most powerful bite of any fish, With the exception of the Pliocene shark Megalodon.

Due to its heavily armoured nature, Dunkleosteus was likely a relatively slow (albeit powerful) swimmer. It is presumed to have dwelled in diverse zones of inshore waters, although it is unknown whether or not it was also somewhat pelagic, that is, swimming freely in open ocean.

Dunkleosteus had the most powerful bite of any fish, With the exception of the Pliocene shark Megalodon.

Dunkleosteus lived during the Devonian period, about 380-360 million years ago.

Allosaurus.



Allosaurus fragilis had an average length of 8.5 meters (28 ft), with the largest definitive Allosaurus specimen (AMNH 680) estimated at 9.7 meters long (32 ft), and an estimated weight of 2.3 metric tons (2.5 short tons).Allosaurus was a typical large theropod, having a massive skull on a short neck, a long tail and reduced forelimbs. As with dinosaurs in general, weight estimates are debatable, and since 1980 have ranged between 1500 kilograms (3300 lb), 1000 to 4000 kilograms (2200 to 8800 lb), and 1010 kilograms (2230 lb) for modal adult weight (not maximum).

Several gigantic specimens have been attributed to Allosaurus, but may in fact belong to other genera. The closely related genus Saurophaganax (OMNH 1708) reached perhaps 10.9 meters (36 ft) in length, and its single species has sometimes been included in the genus Allosaurus as Allosaurus maximus, though recent studies support it as a separate genus. Another potential specimen of Allosaurus, once assigned to the genus Epanterias (AMNH 5767), may have measured 12.1 meters in length (40 ft). A more recent discovery is a partial skeleton from the Peterson Quarry in Morrison rocks of New Mexico; this large allosaurid may be another individual of Saurophaganx.


Skull

Skull of the Allosaurus fragilis skeleton mounted in the lobby of the San Diego Natural History Museum. The skull and teeth of Allosaurus were modestly proportioned for a theropod of its size. Paleontologist Gregory S. Paul gives a length of 845 millimeters (33.3 in) for a skull belonging to an individual he estimates at 7.9 meters long (26 ft). Each premaxilla (the bones that formed the tip of the snout), held five teeth with D-shaped cross-sections, and each maxilla (the main tooth-bearing bones in the upper jaw) had between fourteen and seventeen teeth; the number of teeth does not exactly correspond to the size of the bone. Each dentary (the tooth-bearing bone of the lower jaw) had between fourteen and seventeen teeth, with an average count of sixteen.

The skull had a pair of horns above and in front of the eyes. These horns were composed of extensions of the lacrimal bones,and varied in shape and size. There were also lower paired ridges running along the top edges of the nasal bones that led into the horns. The horns were probably covered in a keratin sheath and may have had a variety of functions, including acting as sunshades for the eye, being used for display, and being used in combat against other members of the same species (although they were fragile). There was a ridge along the back of the skull roof for muscle attachment, as is also seen in tyrannosaurids.


Allosaurus is a genus of large theropod dinosaur that lived 155 to 145 million years ago, in the late Jurassic period (Kimmeridgian to Tithonian). The name Allosaurus means "different lizard" and is derived from the Greek αλλος/allos ("different, strange") and σαυρος/sauros ("lizard"). The first remains that can definitely be ascribed to this genus were described in 1877 by Othniel Charles Marsh. As one of the first well-known theropod dinosaurs, it has long attracted attention outside of paleontological circles, and has been a lead dinosaur in several films and documentaries.

Allosaurus was a large bipedal predator with a large skull, equipped with dozens of large, sharp teeth. The preys of the Allosaurus were the Diplodocus or Stegosaurus.

Arctodus simus or giant short-faced bear


Arctodus — known as the short-faced bear or bulldog bear — is an extinct genus of bear consisting of two known fossil species: Arctodus simus and Arctodus pristinus. They were native to North America during the middle to late Pleistocene epoch. It was thought to be carnivorous, though like modern bears, it was probably not above meal of any kind. Its bones were long and thin, and it believed to be able to run up to 50 km/h for short distances. It was large creature, and likely the apex predator of its day and location. Its large size, combined with the natural toughness of bears, meant that it probably preyed upon the North American megafauna.

However, relying on the North American megafauna as its main food source, it disappeared at the same time they did, possibly partly due to competition with humans for the same limited game.

Tremarctos ornatus, the spectacled bear of South America, is the closest living relative of the short-faced bears.

Arctodus simus, also known as the giant short-faced bear, is an extinct species of bear. The genus Arctodus is known as the short-faced or bulldog bears. A. simus is the largest bear, and more generally, the largest mammalian land carnivore within the last 20,000 years. It was native to prehistoric North America from about 800 thousand years ago, and became extinct about 12,500 years ago. It was the largest terrestrial carnivore of its day. The largest mature males would have stood 1.8m (6 ft) at the shoulder (on all fours), 4m (13 ft) upright and an impressive 900kg (2000 lb).


Arctodus simus are a scavenging or necrophagy, they were using its enormous size to intimidate smaller predators such as dire wolves, Smilodon and American lions from their kills.

Elasmotherium and the origen of unicorn


Elasmotherium ("Thin Plate Beast") was a genus of giant rhinoceros which stood, on average, 2.7 metres (8.9 ft) high and 6 metres (20 ft) long, with a single two-meter-long horn in the forehead. The animal may have weighed up to 5 tonnes (5.5 short tons). Its legs were longer than those of other rhinos and were designed for galloping, giving it a horse-like gait. It was probably a fast runner, in spite of its size. Its teeth were similar to those of horses, and it probably grazed low herbs.

The genus appeared during the Late Pliocene in Central Asia, being derived from the genus Sinotherium. E. inexpectatum and E. peii inhabited Eastern China during the Upper Pliocene to Early Pleistocene. They disappeared approximately 1.6 Ma.

Morphological peculiarities of elasmotherians have generated two main hypotheses concerning their appearance and the character of their habitat. The first, most widely accepted view[citation needed] which was also described above, portrays them as large woolly animals with a large forehead horn that thrived on an open steppe. Fossils of the horn, however, have not been found. The other view[citation needed] assigns elasmotherians to riparian biotopes. It is probable that elasmotherians dwelt in both riparian and steppe biotope[citation needed]. The riparian biotope is suggested by dental and skull morphology. The combination of such characteristics as the absence of canines and strongly developed lateral processes of the atlas implies lateral movements of the head, presumably for grasping grass. The hypsodont dentition indicates presence of mineral grains in the food. Such food could be obtained by pulling out dense plants from the moist soil. These conditions are typical for riparian biotopes. On the other hand, a steppe biotope is indicated by their rather long and slender limbs, which would have served well for creatures grazing over vast areas.

It is believed that Elasmotherium died out in prehistoric times. However, according to science writer and cryptozoologist Willy Ley, the animal may have survived long enough to be remembered in the legends of the Evenk people of Russia as a huge black bull with a single horn in the forehead.

There is also a testimony by the medieval traveller Ibn Fadlan which has been interpreted by some[who?] to indicate that Elasmotherium may have survived into historical times.

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