Showing posts with label prehistoric animals.. Show all posts
Showing posts with label prehistoric animals.. Show all posts

The Inostrancevia.


The Permian period ended 250 million years ago, is the characteristic period of the great explosion of different vertebrates, also terrestrial wildlife and the emergence of future ancestors of mammals as we (and you too) and also the ancestors of past and prehistoric reptiles such as dinosaurs.

Our ancestor while superpredator of the Permian period was a Gorgonops (Gorgonopsid, a family of reptiles which is really more a mamíferol). How I explained earlier bad, if we saw a Gorgonops, probably would think it is a reptilian, but really its features are unique to mammals, such as hot blood ... in fact, it is considered our distant ancestor and that we are descended from it ... and you too.


Well, the largest Gorgonops, the superpredator of the period was the Inostrancevia (any of the 3 species). It was a hunter well developed, nearly 4 meters (13 ft.) in length. Intelligent compared with other creatures of the Permian. It walked to 4 legs, and moved similarly to the Komodo dragon, though its legs kept it at a slightly higher position and not dragged belly. Being able to reach higher speeds and close to 50 km / h.

The skull measured up to 50 cm and had teeth similar to the saber-toothed tiger ... fangs longer than about 15 cm, sharp and ready to hunt their prey. Besides its jaws were very powerful and with the force of its bite crossed Scutosaurus skin, the largest herbivore and was covered by a hard shell crossing.

Although extinct in the late Permian, about 250 million years ago, in the mass extinction of the Late Permian and early Triassic. We know enough of them. The numerous remains were discovered over 100 years ago in what is now Russia. And his name "Inostrancevia" refers to the famous Russian geologist A. Inostranceva.


PSITTACOSAURUS.


Somewhere in Asia where we now find Mongolia, 100 million years ago (Cretaceous) there was a genre of curious animal called a Psittacosaurus "parrot lizard".


A bipedal lizard 2 meters long, with special characteristics that made it look somewhat freaky. Its mouth was toothless in general, although some species did have small sharp teeth to devour the new flowering plants that appeared for the first time in mid-Cretaceous. Its mouth closed with a strong peak like that of a parrot and hence the name Lizard Papagayo. A peak bone, a protuberance of the skull finished with keratin (like rhino horn) that provided a hardened tip and sharp as that of a parrot.



The other peculiarity of this animal is that its tail and back were covered with tubular and hollow bristles. One thinks bristles served as a peacock tail.

Walking on two hind legs, had tubular and hollow bristles as protofeathers, the parrot-like beak and normal ... now would wonder if it was related to birds. And the answer is NO. In fact, and this certainly surprise you, is related to the Triceratops or Eotriceratops. (Ceratopsia)
Animals heavy, clumsy, weighing several tons and with horns, one, three or even five. But if you look at the representations that have been made in the fossils found, we see that these large animals ... also have beaks.

Pterygotus



Let's go back years and years in time. The prehistoric animal that will star in this entry not lived 10,000 years ago, or 100,000 years, or even 1 million years .... but rather 450 million years.

It was a time that called Silurian. The global warming favored that, the seas conquer large tracts of land, warm oceans where practically developed  all complex life on the planet.

This was a perfect time for evolution to experiment with new designs then, with time, while some disappeared, others survive led to the major groups (phyla) that we could find on our planet.

At that time, the arthropods were the kings who ruled over the other species. Vertebrates, molluscs, etc ... everyone had to live under their mandates. And among all arthropods, the largest, the great superpredators were Pterygotus. A genus of extinct arthropods are also known by the name of marine scorpions or giant scorpions.


Along with rhenaniae Jaekelopterus the Pterygotus is considered one of the largest animals of the time. Could exceed 2.3 meters in length, was 8 legs for move around the ocean floor, 2 paws to help him swim (though swim with the movement of your body) and then another 2 paws finished alligator clips that were useful to catch and hold their prey while devouring. His body elongated and armored. It had a good vision as it had two eyes "normal" and two more compounds eyes .... such as flies. Also, if for whatever reason, did not find prey in coastal areas, rivers wealthy could trace to find them.

Along with rhenaniae Jaekelopterus the Pterygotus is considered one of the largest animals of the time. Could exceed 2.3 meters in length (8 ft.), was 8 legs for move around the ocean floor, 2 paws to help him swim (though swim with the movement of your body) and then another 2 paws finished alligator clips that were useful to catch and hold their prey while devouring. His body elongated and armored. It had a good vision as it had two "normal" eyes and two more compounds eyes .... such as flies. Also, if for whatever reason, did not find prey in coastal areas, rivers wealthy could trace to find them.

It was so effective, so successful of its body design, this prehistoric animal Silurian, lived over 30 million years.

The disappearance of Pterygotus was due to the evolution of vertebrates. When they appeared strong and powerful armored fish bites (as Dunkleosteus) able to smash the outer shell of this prehistoric arthropod.

Acanthostega



The Acanthostega is the oldest known tetrapod. Is Ichthyostega predecessor and successor of Tiktaalik. It is of the first vertebrates that poked their heads out of the water to see what had out and hunt insects and arthropods near water. Remember that a tetrapod is one animal that has four legs, and who uses them.

It is the oldest known tetrapod. It was the first animal that had the bone structure needed to walk out of the water. A structure, perfected, was the basis for all other tetrapods (amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds).

How was this prehistoric animal?


Similar to Ichthyostega, no more than a meter in length and its legs were 8 fingers. And like Tiktaalik, the Acanthostega had a disembodied skull that could move while the body ... Unlike fish.

Like early amphibians, the first ones out of the water, his breathing was a simple combination of lungs and gills.

This evolution firstborn old, lived in the shallow waters of the Devonian, 370-360 million years ago.

A curious animal right?

Beelzebufo ampinga or Devil Frog.


To begin the week and make it more bearable, I had thought about an animal today, very curious, which was discovered 4 or 5 years ago and that is the physical evidence of a fascinating event happened on Planet Earth. This animal is called "Beelzebufo ampinga".

Beelzebufo ampinga the Latin "Beelze" means devil, "bufo" means toad and "ampigna" means shield. It is the largest frog discovered in the world. Beelzebufo lived 70 million years ago in the Cretaceous in Madagascar. It shared the world with some known dinosaurs like T-Rex, and although it was no match for them, thanks to their huge mouths, could hunt small dinosaurs, babies and eggs, and other amphibians.


It measured just over 40 cm (16 in) and weighed 5 kg (10 lb), actually the largest frog is the Goliath, with 30 cm and 3 kg (6 lb). The ampingade Beelzebufo skull is composed of a thick shell and their teeth were strong and sharp. Its bite was very powerful and huge mouth, about 35 cm (12 in)  wide. The detail of its mouth is very important, its mouth was large compared to other frogs or toads, in fact it was this characteristic that served to classify this "frog" in the group of prehistoric "Pacman Frogs" or Ceratophrys, a group of frogs living in South America and have a big mouth. And here the controversy.
The earth 80 million years ago

How can it be that the "Pacman" are from South America andon the other hand, locate devil frog in Madagascar?
In principle this creates a contradiction. 70 million years ago, the continents had already split and although nearer than they are now, it would be impossible for terrestrial wildlife pass from one continent to another without encountering miles and miles of ocean. However, some experts think that there was a land connection between South America, Madagascar, Antarctica and possibly to some 65 to 70 million years. It's the only explanation, and if so, "continental drift" was not in order and not in the mode that we were taught in the representations.

Sabertoothed vs Cave lion



At the end, when I put the title, I opted for the most striking title, but my intention was to title this entry: "Cave Lion, Sabretooth and Isthmus of Panama" ... for being this last element would change the configuration of these super-predators who lived North and South America. Let me explain.

Now, to get into this exciting evolutionary battle, we must consider two things:

1 - Today, the largest cat is the Siberian Tiger ... to about 105 cm and 220 kg.

2 - South and North America were cut off, separated by an ocean, and different species living in each of the old continent.

When in one place and at the same time coincide two similar species with similar characteristics and common prey, one of the two species usually be favored over the other. The species "loser" or disappears or should look other prey in other ecological niches that are not exploited by the species "winner". This, over the years can promote morphological changes occur in the species "loser" and then, the two species are no longer rivals to specialize each in their prey and their characteristics.

Well, this I had to tell you that you may understand better what happened between these two species: American cave lion (Panthera leo atrox) and the saber-toothed tiger (Similodon).

In the Pleistocene, there were these two species. The cave lion was king. It was clever, powerful, with a strong bite and we could say it was the super-predator. It weighed about 360 kg - 400 kg and no other animals, such as wolves, bears or other feline, was able to intimidate it. In fact, in its name we can appreciate the sentiment that created to its discoverers, atrox means terrible.

Then we have the second best, it was the saber tooth tiger (Smilodon fatalis), not that it was small. It was quite large and robust enough, maybe a little less intelligent and less social life. It weighed about 280 kg, so we could say that weighed the same as a Siberian tiger overweight ... but that does not exist in nature.

The cave lion weighed fourth part the sabertooth. And with that weight, this old lion, keeping at bay potential sabertooth. It would be like the African lion and leopard. The saber-tooth (as leopard) had to settle for smaller prey with other predators steal them and take care that they are not stolen and ultimately ... was content to be in the shadow of the Great Cave Lion .... But this did not last long ... the Sabretooth had his opportunity and took it.


In the mid-Pleistocene and in a process that lasted hundreds of years, North America joined with the south, forming what we known today as the Isthmus of Panama. This event is one of the most important, geologically speaking, of which have occurred in the last 60 million years. Varied weather gave way to global and fauna from north to south, and vice versa ... is called the Great American Interchange.

The first cross was the Smilodon fatalis. Over time and thanks to the lack of predators (thought) evolved a new species called Smilodon populator a kind to settle at the top of the food pyramid, a prehistoric beast weighing 450 kg, more robust and larger than not only its relative the Smilodon fatalis, but also that their "oppressor" of the north, the Cave Lion North America.


Two species maintained their reigns until a few thousand years ago, our ancestors probably met them, and some were killed in confrontations with these powerful animals: The Lion cave in the north and Sabretooth in the south.

Pikaia



The Pikaia beings is one of the most important and that we should highlight, if we get an overall idea of ​​the exciting topic of evolution and prehistoric animals, I mean ...

Cambrian, 540 million years ago, at the beginning of the explosion of life that happened and all the various forms that appeared in the ancient seas. Appears then a small might just measuring 2 in (5 cm) long.  We're talking Pikaia.

This little creature would become the source of one of the major groups of animals to would be more successful throughout the history of Earth and ... where we also are included: vertebrates.

Lions, hyenas, falcons, whales, sharks, Allosaurus, Triceratops, Sabertooth, armored fish, gorillas and we owe our existence to this small, first vertebrate. We all come from it and was its advantageous morphology characteristic of vertebrates, which helped them survive, although it was a small animal compared to others of his time.


Well, Pikaia was not a colossus  or an apex predator in fact measured about 2 in (5 cm) long.

His body was flattened, hydrodynamic, which used to navigate near the ground where it fed, probably, filtering water particles.
Most characteristic of this small, prehistoric fish was that, unlike molluscs, which are invertebrates and some shelled, and arthropods with exoskeletons, the pikaia possessed the notochord, which is considered the evolutionary precursor of the column spine in all vertebrates.

This feature provided a fast, elasticity, speed with no other animals. Thanks to this feature, so it survived and was able to escape predators. Because the evolutionary experiment went well and that the Pikaia survived ... we are here.

Stygimoloch Spinifer


The image you see, is not an evolved Pokemon, or any other animal picture Japanese manga. That which you see is the drawing, a more or less like a real dinosaur, a dinosaur that is listed as one of the strangest-looking dinosaurs ever found there.

The name of this prehistoric animal is Stygimoloch Spinifer, meaning "thorny devil from the river of death" (intriguing name). He was a member of the family of the pachycephalosaurs, this means that family was the "dinosaurs thick heads" (translation mine). Finally, the most characteristic of Stygimoloch Spinifer was that, his head. His skull was not as thick as other pachycephalosaurs, very well, but has a large number of horns, horns on his head on the muzzle, on the back of the skull and other parts of the face ... On the horns, the experts still do not agree on whether they were to defend themselves, to show off to fight with others of the same species as do the deer, etc.. From what I think so we will agree (experts and mortals ) is that the horns give it looks fantastic, like the dragons of the films. In fact I think the first who drew dragons, were inspired by this animal ... but hey, back to real dinosaur.



The Stygimoloch Spinifer was a herbivore that measured just over 3 meters long and about 2 meters high. He had small front legs but instead the rear were long and strong, so considering that it was agile and quick. In fact, he could inhabit the same ecological niche as a deer or an impala in Africa today ... the only thing that did not live back then lions, but Tyrannosaurus Rex.


He lived in the Late Cretaceous (70 million years ago) in North America. And disappeared probably because of the large meteorite that caused the Cretaceous mass extinction.

Mammuthus creticus. The dwarf mammoth.


 When you tell a woman that looks like a mammoth, she'll think you're saying fat, at least. But if you tell a man, surely he will think you are calling strong and big ... and perhaps hairy. But that's not true, not all mammoths were large and strong and hairy. We saw that some mammoths reached 5 meters in height and 9 long and weighed 12 tons. We referred to the largest species, the Sungari mammoth ("Mammoth Songhua River"). But like I said, there are different species. Possibly the smallest species of the order of the Proboscidea (Mammoth) is the Mammuthus creticus which as its name suggests, lived on the island of Crete.
Lived 3.5 million years ago on the island. And "If you could rebuild, it would be like a baby elephant, but stouter, with thicker members and look chubby. Would have had a lock of adult tusks," Herridge said in a statement from the Natural History Museum in London.

Not exceed one meter high, and basically be like an adult but about 5 times smaller and lighter, and less hairy.
Apparently, size dwarf was a response to the lack of resources of the islands, because apart from Crete remains have been found in other Mediterranean islands.

Another adaptation to the climatic characteristics of the Mediterranean islands, was the removal of the protective layer of hair. It had hair like his predecessors. Keep in mind that the climate of this island is quite pleasant and seldom falls below zero.

The colonization of the Mediterranean islands occurred in successive drainage schemes in the Mediterranean, up to 10 times in the last 6 million years, or lowered sea level, which facilitated the passage between them and the European continent.




Austroraptor

 




The Austroraptor is a close relative to Velociraptor, but larger, about 20 feet long (3 times longer). His name means "thief of the South" (South raptor), such as birds, and do not put this name by chance. In a way, his appearance might remind us old birds, a predecessor to the Raptors next we Know today. His head (over 4 fts) was low, long and streamlined, provided with numerous small and conical teeth. Moreover, according to the markings found in fossils, it was covered with feathers.

This prehistoric animal called attention to the paleontologist who discovered it to see how their upper limbs were in proportion smaller than others of the same gender: their short forearms depart from the condition characteristic of all long arms and their relatives dromaeosaurids avian nearby. This would therefore be a missing link between dinosaurs and modern birds.
  Perhaps (and this is my opinion) is an example of regression, this means that they resumed their oldest species characteristics. As is the case of flightless birds also reduce its wings.

Instead, it was her hind legs which facilitated the classification of this new species, the family Dromaeosauridae or "corridors lizards." By this I mean that was a fast runner Austroraptor, who had strong back legs and he used to hunt their prey.

The Austroraptor lived 70 million years in the late Cretaceous period in what is now South America..

Acrocanthosaurus



Without quite knowing why, Acrocanthosaurus lived to the public under the shadow of T.Rex, still a great unknown to most and undervalued its role as a hunter at the time of the Cretaceous in North America and Europe.


About the size of T.Rex, the Acrocanthosaurus was a cousin of Allosaurus and, as this was a hunter specializing in large animals, giant sauropods like Diplodocus weighing 6 or 7 times or Pleurocoelus.
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The name of this lizard Acrocanthosaurus means "thorn lizard high" and indeed, when it was discovered, even mistook him for the BIG SPINOSARUS (King of Kings). The theme of the spines always generates controversy and do not become experts agree: if they were to regulate the temperature, if it was to swim, to show your mood, or to house unions with strong muscles ... too numerous to write about this but we'll see another day.

Speaking of muscles, the Acrocanthosaurus was very muscular and strong, much more than others allosaurids. Something like an Allosaurus largest and steroids. It measured 12 meters and weighed 5.6 tons, and this made ​​him a bit slow *. He ran and ran up to the big sauropods (which is not that they were cheetahs) long necks and hooked to these formidable pulling their strong claws and bite with all his weight down, dropping these titanic beasts.

* It was the weight and slow what they did to specialize in hunting large animals, or vice versa, hunting big beasts Acrocanthosaurus led to larger and more robust. Finally, the case is to specialize in this way produced an end. Forms were disappearing with the big sauropods, the Acrocanthosaurus were increasingly less likely to hunt and smaller dams could more easily escape them. His strength was his undoing.




Silverfish, prehistoric animal still alive.


All prehistoric animal lovers, we like to discover that, although not a Megalodon or a giant short-faced bear, we can delight with the observation of a tiny prehistoric animals still alive, a being that has not changed for 400 million years and for more joy, it is possible that we have at home.

These animals are called silverfish, fishmoths, carpet sharks or paramites, and are on earth so long ago that saw come and go trilobites, Dunkleosteus, at the very Hurdia Victoria, the well-known T-Rex and even our ancestors like Australopithecus.

This is a prehistoric animal in wingless insects have a long, excluding its limbs, about an inch.
Its metallic luster of the body is due to its silvery scales, which appear after the third molt.

He lives in damp and dark, most often in older buildings, or between books and papers at home.

They feed on carbohydrates such as starch or other polysaccharides. They can also digest cellulose, textiles drilling starch, sugar, hair, dandruff, dirt and mildew, books, cotton, linen, silk, including artificial silk, dead insects or even its own exuvia (shed skin) and mites.
Driven by famine, a silverfish may even indulge skin with clothing (leather) and some fabrics made with synthetic fibers. However, like many insects, is capable of interrupting their vital activity for several months without appreciable harm.




His top predator are earwigs, house centipedes and spiders




Anyway, I personally think that seeing this animal is a privilege and a gift, it is also harmless to humans (not like cockroaches), and I find it funny when turning on a light or stop run to the small, dark recesses the bathroom ... Probably been that way (hide and seek food in the dark) and have survived so many predators, so many changes in climate, so many disasters, wars and so many years. So next time you see one and go to step on it, think that this is a prehistoric animal.

Daspletosaurus


THE TERRIBLE carnivorous reptiles. That was the name we put this dinosaur, Daspletosaurus. It was another prehistoric animal Tyranosaurido fierce-looking and although a little smaller than its cousin the famous Tyranosaurio. Even being smaller, this dinosaur was a predator that stood at the top of the food chain and devouring other animals such as large or some Ceratopsidae hadrosaurids (horned Triceratops) of several tons.

Possibly, his name is due to the impression that was taxed in the retina of the paleontologists who discovered it: a huge head of 1 meter with 72 serrated teeth, long and sharp with heterodoncia (specialized teeth). Measuring up to 9 meters long and it is estimated that almost could have reached the 4,000 kg.

A feature to highlight in this prehistoric predator was his strong neck and a strong legs (compared with other similar sized tyranosauridos.

The strong hind legs brought him agility and speed in racing, and a starting power and strength to pursue valuable prey. It was really a terrible carnivore and fast.



On the strength of his neck, holding a skull strong armed indeed, its function was to hold its prey. Since its forelegs were minimal and not very useful, Daspletosaurus used their strong teeth to catch and mortally wound its prey. Grab their prey with a bite bowed numerous sharp teeth and retained and the onslaught endured and the struggles of its prey with its powerful neck.


The Daspletosaurus lived in North America in the Cretaceous period about 75 million years.

In the video below looks like a group of successful practice Daspletosaurus a hunt. (Up to 4.40 min)




Quetzalcoatlus.

One of the first animals that we put in the blog was the big Azhdarchidae. Huge pterosaur (flying reptiles) with a wingspan of 10 meters. Well, now the largest pterosaur know all ... indeed is considered the largest flying animal of history: the Quetzalcoatlus.


The Quetzalcoatlus was by far the largest flying animal. For example, a current condor reaches 3.3 meters (11 ft) , 3.6 meters (12 ft) of an albatross, a magnificiens Argentinavis reached the 8 meters (26 ft) wingspan, large Azhdarchidae reached the 10 meters (33 ft) ... but the Quetzalcoatlus reached 15 meters (48 ft) . And while most current research suggests that reached 12 meters, still the largest flying animal ever.

The most representative species of this genus is the northropi Quetzalcoatlus, a pterosaur, with a similar appearance to other pterosaurs had a long beak, sharp and toothless. With a small head and a ridge height of almost 5 meters (16 ft) when placed standing, weighing 200 kg (450 lb) . To think that 200 kg (450 lb) is a lot for a flying animal, for example, weighs 12 kg (25 lb) condor, so some experts believe that weighed much less ... about 80 kg.


It lived in the Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian ago by 68-65.5 million years ago) in North America.



Hainosaurus

You have certainly heard of Mosasaurus, the great predator of the Cretaceous, a fearsome marine hunter was afraid of other creatures of the sea but ... and Hainosaurus? While not believe it, the Hainosaurus belonged to the same family as the Mosasaurus, Mosasauridae the family.


He was also a marine reptile, an apex predator that lived with her ​​relative Mosasaurus.


Hainosaurus dimensions have been debated: Some experts believe that reached 17 m (57 ft) and 13 m (42 ft) change others, but the vast majority agrees to an average size 15 meters (50ft).


This hunter's skull measuring 1.5 meters (5 ft) long. And in his jaws were more than 60 teeth are sharp and hard. Among their prey were fish, turtles, marine reptiles and even smaller sharks.

The hainosaurus had an elongated body that was perfectly adapted to the water to achieve greater agility and speed. They had fins on the sides and curved tail with fins to swim very fast, to reach out and catch their prey without that it can do almost anything.


This prehistoric animal was specially adapted to be in the water, and some of the questions that have their fossils are related to how and where breeding and giving birth to their young, uncertain whether it was viviparous, oviparous or ovoviviparous.


Although little is known of this marine reptile, I hope you discover more about the wonderful Hainosaurus.

Moeritherium, the ancestor of the elephant.


40 million years ago appeared on Earth the first elephants, rather the ancestors of the modern elephant. One of the ancestors called Moeritherium, which means "Moeris beast," which is an ancient lake in Egypt. Not only was the ancestor of modern elephants, was also the forerunner of the mammoth and mastodon, all Proboscidea (order of placental mammals). In addition it is also thought to be related to the manatee or sea cow or also known as Sirens.

The Moeritherium was small compared with an African elephant, the size of a big pig, a vegetarian-bodied, plump and heavy. He had thick legs, long, thin skull. Is believed to have had a rudimentary horn was somewhat flexible like a tapir or the Macrauchenia current. Instead their eyes and ears of the hippopotamus seemed to be placed in the top of the head perhaps for the amount of time remaining in the water of swamps and rivers. It is thought that the same ecological niche occupied in the hippo. But with them and speaking in evolutionary terms, they have nothing to do.



The protofeather or Dinofuzz.,

The protofeathers (or Dinofuzz) ... the great mystery of reptilian scales transition feathers.

What are protofeathers?

The protofeathers are structures shaped keratin hair or bristle and are considered the precursors of feathers.

When did?

Much of all this passionate debate is the date of appearance of the feathers, protofeathers. It is interesting that the oldest fossil
protofeathers are later than the earliest known bird. It makes no sense unless the protofeathers or dinofuzz ​​appeared much earlier (in the Middle Triassic) and therefore would all structures originally present in dinosaurs and their immediate ancestors. Impressions of skin devoid of feathers or protofeathers known (Anatosaurus, Carnotaurus, Tyrannosaurus, etc..) Could be due to a subsequent loss of the outer coating due to the large body mass of these animals (the same reason that the rhinos and elephants have virtually no hair). But this need not be. Anyway ... although I am inclined to this theory, it really is just a theory.

How are the protofeathers?

According to the current expliación: One of reptilian scales ... This is the first spine, then becomes hollow and extends, as it grows, it follows from the skin and forms a cluster of hairs called beards or barbules.

In this video you can see the process of formation of protofeathers.


video

Why are important protofeathers?



For as we said, are the precursors of feathers. The appearance of the feathers is one of the most controversial issues can be found by paleontologists.

Apart from that it is not clear when they appeared, the experts, agree with in the end, why they left feathers: feathers but now used to fly (the most important feature) is considered to formation of these was a simple cold protection system. A coat of hollow scales isolated from the ravages of time.


Why were transformed into feathers?


Protofeathers are known to be used to maintain body heat and cover the body from the cold. And the fossils discovered (or most) protofeathers concentrations were located on the tail and arms. This allowed them to cover her at night and cover the cold while the temperature down ...



It is no coincidence that birds have feathers on the wings larger (called T-shirts or remiges) and tail (tail feathers or rectrices). They were the first to develop, were the first to appear were also exercising more air resistance. An important feature for small arboreal animals, leaping from branch to branch or thieves fast and small eggs.

What were the first to have protofeathers?

There are several examples of theropods (a group of two-legged carnivores, which is the T. Rex or Velociraptor). Some are: Dilong paradoxus, Sinosauropteryx, Shuvuuia, Beipiaosaurus, Sinornithosaurus, etc ...


But not only are the developers of theropods
Dinofuzz ​​protofeathers or, for example there is the Tianyulong, a small herbivore that is casting doubt on its position in the evolutionary tree and it was discovered 2 years ago.

Finally, there are still many questions to solve, finding fossils and discovering new species. A truly exciting topic of prehistoric life on our planet.

Saurophaganax, theeater of saurians.

Saurophaganax, theeater of saurians is a genus represented by a single species of theropod dinosaur alosáurido: Saurophaganax maximus.

This was a predator who was at the top of the food chain of the time. A hunter considered the gender of the Allosaurus, which rivaled the east by the Jurassic reservoirs superior.De titanic fact, Saurophaganax maximus, was greater than any Allosaurus... as a Zhuchengtyrannus. Could grow to 11 meters long (36 ft), 3.5 tons, and nearly 4 meters (17 ft) high ... But some paleontologists experts who have researched their fossils suggest that it could reach up to 15 meters (50 ft)long and nearly 6 tons (as T. Rex) y. .. apart from these data that can help us imagine a similar beast, S. maximus shared a characteristic of other species of Allosaurus: speed. Could grow to more than 10 km / h; nothing compared to a Formula One car but far more titanic than animals that were part of their diet as the Apatosaurus.

If it was a Allosurus or not is not known, but is increasingly more confident that it is not, what we do know the Saurophaganax maximus is: if it looked like the Allosaurus, the bite would be so terrible as these predators ... not good .... even more powerful and effective because it is a large species 3 meters (12 ft) and two tons heavier. We could say that if the Allosaurus was a bull shark, S. maximus would be a great white shark.


The main feature is its maximus Saurophaganax horizontal plate at the base of the dorsal neural spine, this gives a look similar to the typical fantastic dragons have a series of chevrons along the body.

Madtsoia bai

Imagine dragging 3.000 lb of muscle stealthily lurking in the swamps and the darkness of the jungle. A being with a cold stare that shakes because it reflects the very death. I'm talking about THE WORLD'S LARGEST SNAKE AND THE STORY ... And prehistory.

The Madtsoia bai or as it is commonly known "the grandmother of Cow Canyon" is a species of the genus madtsoia and is possibly the largest snake ever found and even bigger than Titanoboa.

In 1931, evolutionary paleontologist George Gaylord Simpson found the fossilized skeleton of a snake in the town of Cow Canyon, located in the southeast of the province of Chubut (Argentina).
This prehistoric animal was a snake constrictor, meaning they hunted their prey by strangulation, not poison, squeezing and squeezing its prey more and more each time the prey exhales the snake tightened until the victim can not recover this vital air and dies by suffocation.

The estimated sizes for this giant snake is between 50 and 65 feets, diameter 2 feets and weighing up to 1.5 tons. For example, the current Anaconda fails, almost never, 8 meters, 35 cm in diameter and 450 lb ... and is the largest in the world.

On the other hand, imagine the animals would be able to swallow this thing of prehistory. If you lived in Argentina Patagonia 90 million years ago and has been extinct for 2 (or so they say), bony part of the Cretaceous and Pleistocene, could engulf prey as Abelisaurus terrible, a great Toxodon or even one of the first cats that Smilodon drinking approached carelessly.

15 m years ago began a process of cooling and desertification of Patagonia, which was gradually shaping the current face of the region as well as climatic and environmental conditions that we know at present.

The giant snakes do not support these changes and became extinct, or in some cases, retreated northward, giving rise to the current species of large snakes.

Allosaurus fragilis.

When I wrote the post of Allosaurus Europeaus, also promised to write about the Allosaurus fragilis, the best-known species whose fossilized bones have more information to the expert paleontologists.


But not only important for the amount of fossil fuels. Anyone who has heard or knows anything about the dinosaur Allosaurus know that this was a T. Rex of his time. It was a prehistoric monster that was in the top of the food chain, a predator with a bite capable of prey animals as large as Stegosaurus and Diplodocus.







Fortunately for the Allosaurus did not have to deal with T.rex (who lived 80 million years later), the Spinosaurus (30 million years later) or Giganotosaurus (60 million years ago). Possibly the only species of dinosaur that could stand up was Saurophaganax that like Allosaurus lived for about 150 million years in the late Jurassic.

Their physical characteristics are:

Length: Nearly 30 feets long.
Height: 13 feets.
Weight: 6000 lb.

(T.rex- 43 for long., 18 tall and nearly 13.000 lb)

Although smaller than T. rex, Allosaurus's body was much the same way, the only notable difference was that his front arms were compared with the body, stronger and longer.

Another feature is that the Allosaurus (some experts believe) reached high speeds ... of course for these sizes of dinosaurs. Reached speeds of up to 6,2 mill / h and this speed could reach any of stalking and its victims.

Once the victim came to them with a bite attack stubborn 70-curved teeth inward dams prevented their escape, lest they (the prisoners) do without the piece of meat that was trapped in its jaws Allosaurus.
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