Showing posts with label prehistoric animals.. Show all posts
Showing posts with label prehistoric animals.. Show all posts


Sometimes I like to revel in the oldest prehistoric animals, put aside the great saurian to which we are accustomed to seeing and who are better known and delve me at the beginning of life, dive into the origin of evolution. When existing evolutionary branches were more diverse and where we find primitive animals and, in a way, awaken our imagination.

The Jaekelopterus is a good example. If we read a book of science fiction, books describing other worlds and invented creatures living in it, we could find a Jaekeloptero swimming in its waters.

Brief description of the animal: this prehistoric animal, it is the order of the eurypterids, namely Scorpions sea. Among all species of these ancient scorpions, the bigger the Jaekelopterus.

Its dimensions are tremendous, we are talking about more than 2.5 meters long (just imagine a scorpion 2.5 meters long (82 ft.)  coming through the door of the room by going directly to you ... scares eh?) So great was that it is considered a predator who held one of the highest positions in the food chain....
How they hunted?
Together with those dimensions, hunting is the most amazing of all. The Jaekelopterus had two pincers of no less than about 50 cm  (16 ft.) in two of its appendages that could extend to grab its prey tightly. Close and personal with a rapid expansion of its appendices remained motionless at predated while it was eating it.

This last detail makes us think one thing. We have said that could reach 2.5 meters long (82 ft.). But when his paws and claws extended, the length of this increased to one meter, reaching measuring 3.5 meters long (115 ft.).

However, no one seems to ensure that it was a true predator, and it seems that this animal could get most of their food from the carrion of other dead animals.

As is understood by the name, this animal was aquatic. But it is thought that did not live in seas, but in swamps, rivers, etc ...
He lived in the Devonian, 390 million years ago, when many of the mainland were still together.

Finally, these animals are a bit in no man's land. It is not known exactly whether they are really related to scorpions, with arachnids or the horseshoe crab.


The most famous of the Sloths, we all know more or less, is the Megatherium. A ground sloth sturdy-looking, with more than 3000 kg (6.600 lb) . But there is another Sloths, thalassocnus, which has the peculiarity of being prehistoric and water.

The thalassocnus moved slowly and peaceful, sometimes snorkelling hunting dangerous algae and mosses with bladed teeth.

Like the Megatherium, the thalassocnus also had big, strong arms, but not to grab the branches of trees, but to cling to the seafloor, holding well to the underwater rocks while feeding.

This Sloths was not as big or heavy as its cousin the prehistoric ground sloth, in fact, could be bigger for being aquatic as it can better withstand the weight ... but no. The thalassocnus could measure about 2 meters long (40 ft.), and weighs 120 kg (264 lb.). Sometimes he could leave the water and feed on land plants, but not a large as its cousin, it could easily fall prey to predators such as Sparassodonta or Amphicyon.

Anyway, you do not think that it is rare to see a sloth in the water. Sometimes, amazon overflows, and the only way to move from tree to tree is swimming. Here you can see a sloths, swimming ... it does very well.

It existed between the Miocene and Pliocene (between 25,000 and 2.5 million years ago) in what is now known as South America.


The epanterias Amplexus was probably the greatest of all Allosaurus. I say probably because many experts do not consider the rest found, the rest of a different species to allosauros. But this confusion is normal, the only bones that have been found are, 3 vertebrae a coracoid (a part of the body near the shoulder) and a metatarsal (a finger). Of these fossils, after analyzing the experts, it has concluded that they were Allosaurus, which were quite large, even more than the Saurophaganax or Allosaurus fragilis.

The epanterias Amplexus was a theropod (like almost all theropods, bipedal carnivores) allosaurid North America who lived around 150 million years ago ... in the Jurassic.

As to its dimensionsthe measures vary between 12 (39 ft) and 16 meters (52 ft.). Respectively, the first estimate corresponds to those who think that it was only a large Allosaurus fragilis. The measurements between 14 and 16 meters are estimates of those who believe that are treated rather of a different species.

Take for example the case of T. Rex. The Rex measures 12.5 (42 ft.)meters in length. Instead the epanterias Amplexus can reach 14 (45 ft.) meters according to some estimates, however, the most conservative support could reach 12 meters (39 ft.).

The height of one and the other is about 4 meters (13 ft.)high to the hips. If set upright likely it reaches 6 meters. And if we calculate the weight, this would approach between 4 and 5 tonnes (2250 lb.).
Only seeing the data we get an idea of their proportions. In fact, it is considered the longest of all allosáuridos, and larger and heavier than the Allosaurus fragilis ... if he really is a different species allosaurido.

If we saw to it quickly, clearly we would see the differences between epanterias Amplexus the T.Rex. For example, the first has smaller than the second head. Another characteristic feature is that the T.Rex has little arms, however the epanterias Amplexus has a longer and arms with huge claws.
If we had X-ray eyes, we would see that the T. Rex skull is more compact, its bite was stronger. Instead, the epanterias Amplexus had a lighter skull, but the top of his skull was secure with a powerful neck and would aim a bite with the upper teeth as an ax.

Among its favorite foods we would find Camptosaurus, Diplodocus and Stegosaurus ... of the greatest of all herbivores.


Dimorphodon name comes from Greek and literally translate as di "two", morphe, "shape" and odon, "tooth"; "teeth in two forms." I have always liked those names because they are easy to remember, and give us clues about some of its features found.

The Dimorphodon, was a small prehistoric saurian . Although it should be noted that small size at that time was 1.5 meters( 5 ft) . But compared with the Quetzalcoatlus nearly 10 meters wide (32 ft), the Dimosphodon, it was like a dove for a condor.

In short, this size is curious, or maybe not so much .... But while the scientific literature this flying lizard remained in the aforementioned 1.5 meters (5ft) , in the film "Jurassic World" comes to 3 meter size (10 ft). What do not you believe it? Do you think that the film is made in strict compliance accredited science discoveries, or that there is no intention of exaggerating to surprise more and sell more? ... Because here you have proof.

Well, but let's not cruel, the truth is that thanks to films how are you, many young children and adults started to be interested and dive into the world of dinosaurs. It is a kind of social work ..... but hey, let the film we talked about it a while and have not been released.

What was the Dimorphodon? As for the evidence and representations that I have observed, I could say that would be a kind of flying lizard .... a kind of crocodile with wings and the face of a Tyrannosaurus Rex.

Even still flying, its body and especially the neck, was robust and strong. So it is conceivable that flying was not doing marathons. The sturdy neck responded to a pattern (in nature nothing is wasted) Dimorphodon head was large and heavy for a flying animal. Still, the skull had large openings reducías weight.

Had no peak, but a mouth full of teeth, and this would introduce the topic of the teeth and their name. And in the front was elongated teeth, as long fangs run out, those teeth were prepared to hunt prey in flight (you think mostly fish). Then in the innermost part, the fangs were shorter and robust, not so ready to catch in flight, but to tear flesh from their prey.

"Dimorphodon mount" by Frank Kovalchek from Anchorage, Alaska, USA - Dinosaur skeleton at the Rainbow Forest Museum.

The Dimorphodon is a genus of pterosaurs the early Jurassic period, 180-200 million years ago


The name "Haikouichthys" comes from the Greek: "Ichthys" which means fish "Fish of the Chinese city of Haikou". And you put that name is very characteristic. I mean, a fish is a fish, and you do not name it except that fish being fish special. And here it is ... because the Haikouichthys is the first fish of evolution. Not only that, it is also one of the first vertebrates that existed, and which all others come from trout, shark, elephant, hen, you and me.

Anyway, this post, the first vertebrate, the first fish of prehistory, he shares with his contemporary, the Pikaia. Both of others lived in the Cambrian, appeared at the beginning of the famous Cambrian explosion of life. 530 million years ago.

The Haikouichthys, was not a giant of the oceans, in fact, was about 2.5 cm (3 in). With your thumb we could have ended the life of one of the most important animal in the history of evolution.

(It occurs to me cuanticocosmictemporal dysfunction, if we traveled back in time to 530 million years ago and we killed the fish in Haikou that evolved in all vertebrates, we would not exist, and therefore we could not kill the Haikouichthys, so he would survive and we too .... anyway ... I do not follow me head implodes and the blog is not about that).

A further feature is that Haikouichthys had a distinct head of the body. Until then, prehistoric animals seemed tubes, it was not known or where to eat or where defecated ... at first glance. And far fewer had a clear center differential that controlled the other body part. But with the Haikouichthys this was more evident. Had a head, eyes and mouth of millimeters. And then a "long" body with dorsal and pectoral fin that served to move like fish in water.

The movement is really important. We must bear in mind that at the beginning of the Cambrian, most of the oceans was occupied by large arthropods, sponges or slow and slimy worms. And suddenly, a small chordate appears, a young vertebrate with a capacity that others had: was agile and quick. And though not great, thanks to its speed and agility, he could escape their large predators and become the main protagonist in the formation of large animal phyla: vertebrates.


What would you think if you walking down a lonely street, hear a deafening roar, a wrenching and inhuman scream and scared to lift the head, could see the creature we see up above.

The options are many:

  • Some mad scientist has mixed the DNA of various beings and created this abomination. 
  • You are hallucinating and think that mixing alcohol with sleeping pills are not a good idea. 
  • Or, the most likely option. It has breached spacetime that has joined your space-time now with the space-time Earth 150,000 years ago. Facilitating the passage of this prehistoric be watching you from the roof.

Because that's the most likely possibility, I see the urgency of what this should you ever be wrong with you. 

This prehistoric flying animal called Rhamphorhynchus, translated into our language, would mean lizard "Muzzle Duck". 

The Rhamphorhynchus was one of the first pterosaurs and its features that distinguish it from other pterosaurs, we highlight its longer than normal tail. Of course, his mouth is also very peculiar. The duck-shaped, flat and wide mouth (though with long, spiny teeth) would be a good tool for catching fish. There are experts who claim that they were not so specialized, and their diet was more varied.

The other important difference from most modern pterosaurs is that the crest did not Rhamphorhynchus neither bone nor cartilage or anything. I had no intention to leave it. 
Stands and this flying lizard reach up to our chest and wing span was almost 2 meters. 
He lived in what is now Europe and Africa in the Jurassic.


This is probably the last prehistoric animal of which I write until I get back from vacation, however, I mustered all my strength (which are already few when you look approaching the holidays) and have compiled enough information to get an idea of ​​this creature surprising. The name of this animal is to Aphelops Mutilus.

What does your name?

How ever we have seen, the name that experts give some prehistoric animals are simple, then put them in Latin or Greek, and it looks like something out of a more sensible work all palontólogo scholar and scientist. Nooooo, I do not mean this ... Mutilus, which is mutilated, and Greek + Ops aphelēs soft face. If we put all of this creature's name can be translated as the soft face mutilated. Actually, this name refers to the impression given paleontologists who discovered its remains for the first time. Found a rhinoceros, huge, which was lacking something, I had no horn ... hence the name soft mutilated face ... and how was it?

Well, as I said, it was a rhinoceros, an ancestor of the white rhino and black, but also the woolly rhinoceros. Easily exceeded 4.2 meters long (14 ft.) and was close to 3 meters tall (9 ft,). They were immense.

A large male white rhino can exceed 3,000 kg (6.600 lb), but easily surpassed Aphelops 4 tons (8.800 lb). Its constitution was robust, the larger body and smaller legs. Looked more like a hippo rhino.

Petite legs, big, round and with a huge rib cage body, without much hump like a rhinoceros. In fact, after analyzing the skeleton and teeth, experts concluded that the Aphelops Mutilus spent much of their time in the water, as hiccups live. Once out, he would be helpless, despite its large size, face formidable predators as Hyaenodon or Entelodon (or giant boar). If only I had a horn to defend ...

This large herbivore existed in the Miocene, between 20 and 5 million behind in what is now North America. Besides Aphelops Mutilus have been classified two species: Aphelops malacorhinus and Aphelops megalodus.

Panthera tigris acutidens

I'll tell you a secret. When we speak of prehistoric big cats, the most powerful, the most dangerous and terrible hunter, it's easy to come to mind two species: the Cave Lion (Panthera leo atrox) and the saber-toothed tiger (Similodon).

But really, there is another species that is probably the most terrible, strongest, largest cat that ever lived and that's a real unknown to the general public, it is the Panthera tigris acutidens. A cat can only hunt animals such as Stegodon (which is a type a type of small elephant) or Calicoterio. To get an idea, this prehistoric cat could hunt down an actual cape buffalo. One of those we see in documentaries Africa needed 4 or 5 lions to tear it down.

Panthera tigris acutidens, as the name suggests "tigris" is a kind of tiger. In fact it is considered a direct ancestor of the Asian tiger, the largest today.

Little is known of this beast. It was not only larger than the largest tiger today, it was also more massive. Therefore, it is thought that it was not a long distance runner, but short and quick, races depended stalking and grounds overgrown jungle that allowed close enough to approach their prey in a quick race. It is believed that could weigh 450 kg (992 lb), 100 kg (220 lb) more than the Siberian tiger. Moreover, the cross came to 1.30 meters and tail, could reach almost 4 meters (13 ft,).

The tusks of this were in line, about 15 cm in length. And when I was able to reach its prey nailed them like sharp daggers or spine smashed or crushed trachea hunted animal.

He lived 2 million years ago and it is not known exactly when it died ... in the early Pleistocene. In cold, snowy woods of what is now China and other parts of Asia, where its winter whitish camufrarse allowed.


The name "Barosaurus" refers to the size of this dinosaur. It is one of the greatest of all time, similar in size to Diplodocus.

The Barosaurus could reach up to 30 meters long and, at first sight, we would observe that it is the classic sauropod. Elongated, with stretched neck and whiplike tail with a tiny head and resting on its 4 legs. Was proportionally more massive than the Diplodocus, and this one was because its tail but was not as long, compared the neck itself was longer than the diplodocus.

Such a long neck poses many problems, especially uploading blood to the head that rose to the highest eat leaves of the highest trees. To address this, the general opinion raises the option of having a powerful and great heart. It has been estimated that the heart of this prehistoric animal could be as heavy and as big as the heaviest and largest bison: a heart of 1500 kg ...

Another option raises the possibility that something was 8 hearts .... funny because I know, some cephalopods have more than one heart ... but eight?
Another option is posed that Barosaurus veins had valves closed and allowed to recede and the blood does not create pressure which could be fatal. This method prevents the giraffes do not exploit their veins when head down to drink.
Mathematical models have clarified the issue, and have come to the conclusion that the animal raised its head .... then why such a long neck?

Another thing that attracts attention is that its neck vertebrae was huge. Of course, the whole animal was huge, have said the size of heart, but get an idea of ​​what our small neck vertebrae that are ... for those of Barosaurus larger than 1 meter. However, it is thought that these vertebrae were hollow, that it can reduce the weight of the neck.

Vegetarian and small head, this would be a great animal that if we go back 150 million years and travel to Africa, we would see it and we should be amazed that it was so big. We should be amazed that on Earth we know today had ever had a big animal.


Neither the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov, was as rare as this animal had happened. Get the name of Hallucigenia, a marvel of evolution. Its name refers to the word "hallucination", which is what they believed passing the first to see it, as this seems strange prehistoric animal that has been designed by a crazy artist, or an elephant or a dolphin. The paleontologists who discovered not believe what they saw, in fact, did not know its classification; if it was a plant, if it was face up or face down, did not know if he had head and where it was.

They were hallucinated when they found this impossibly small animal that was no more than 4 cm in length and that's apparitions in the Cambrian explosion, when there was the proliferation of life forms, some as strange as this.

As its body is tubular in shape, it is not easy to distinguish, in what place is the head. In fact, experts believe that the head is one of the bulky and ends with two appendices, but it's an assumption that an idea based on a test-out there.

Sensing where the head came next question was: how do walking? And still do not have the solution, after 40 years and several fossilized specimens found. The Hallucigenia had several protrusions. On the one hand, had 7 hard spines, and at first experts thought that moved like sea urchins .... moving the thorns. Then it found that he also had a soft tentacles moving in the opposite area .... how moving it? With the spikes or tentacles? Well, although it seems that the latter is more accepted, do not become totally agree ... and I do not know what to say.I will however get wet at the risk of saying the wrong thing (as you know, ignorance is very bold) If you walk with the tentacles, these could get food and on the other hand, the spines serve them to fend off potential predators. If it walk with barbed tentacles would not do them much good, much less as a defense. Therefore, to put right the Hallucigenia would say his feet were moving tentacles.

To give you a better idea of ​​the confusion brought about by the discovery of this animal, you even now some paleontologists think that it is an animal, but part of an even larger animal.
With what the story is a bit more complicated.

Anyway, if any of us, or our children, we traveled back in time to the Cambrian; Earth that we know seem another planet in another system, another galaxy and other different physical laws .... at least.


Not all prehistoric animals are frightening Tyrannosaurus, Allosaurus and Spinosaurios ... no, there are others .... but those do not interest us today (MUAHAHAHA) .... we want blood, claws, large teeth and formidable carnivores able to intimidate only imagine. Let the beasts that we like, for example, to Rugops. This prehistoric animal of the Cretaceous (about 95 million years ago), lived in Africa and is a terrible theropod (like the T-Rex for example) family of abelisaurs (lizards Abel) ...

While Rugops (wrinkled face) was large: it could reach 8 feet long and weighs same as a hippo, never got the position of dominant predator. As we have said, lived in Africa, and in that time there was another predator floating around .... the Spinosaurus.

It is this reason that some experts think it may be more of a scavenger rather than a predator ... but do not really understand how they have come to that conclusion. Right now, today, we see that the lion is bigger than a hyena, hyena hunting but even more than the lion.
Other features of this carnivore is that had small arms ... now I can say "Most theropods have small arms." Yes, true, but the Rugops was an animal with proportionately still smaller forelimbs, were little more than stumps .... to give you an idea, our arms are longer than the arms of Rugops. And considering that I could reach 9 meters is simple we get an idea of ​​their hands ... or little claws.

Moreover, as the name suggests, its skull had a half meter bony protuberances, full of venous capillaries that gave its a gruesome appearance, as if it were bad and deformed film.

Finally, some authors believe that had spikes on the neck and tail. Although they found no evidence of this, nor of barbs or inserts .... but hey, maybe that is because lately it is changing the conception we had of the saurian, such as T. Rex, is probably had therefore also the Triceratops, a few years ago it was learned that Velociraptor had feathers ... anyway. 

Below, Spinosaurio having hunted and waiting for the bottom Rugops their cake.


Family of ankilosauridae (which are protected under bony armor, armored lizard literally), we can point the Gastonia burgei. A herbivorous whose most notable physical feature was its enormous armor protecting the back of the body and neck and serves as an indication to know your storyline. An armature, a row of spines and bumps that made ​​it impossible to sink your teeth predators. Besides working in packs, and facing a predator joined rows forming impassable reminds African buffalo versus lions.

The characteristics of the excavation where the fossilized bones were found, no one knows exactly the number of spines possessed. Is known is that some reach 50 cm (1,7 ft) in length, therefore, predators should be very careful not to bump into these horns if they did not to lose an eye, or were nailed to the heart or lungs.

In fact, its only weakness was the belly, for that, the predator must rotate in order to reach an area unprotected. Something that is very difficult because the Gatonia was an animal with a very low center of gravity and weighing more than 1000 kg (2204 lb). Length up to 5 meters (7 ft) long, with a tail of 2 meters which it used as a whip and a simple swipe of the tail, was able to knock down a predator.

Found between predators to Utahraptor, which by name and intuit that was in Utah, in the United States. And the Gastonia lived mainly in what is today North America and Europe during the Cretaceous period, about 125 million years ago.

A curiosity about Gastonia. Phylogenetic by this prehistoric animal is the Ornithischia. This animal, known for their muscles, strength and be massive and heavy, shares a similar bird hip, which means bird and ornitheos ischion by hip. But this similarity does not mean anything, is only superficial because birds are from the order Saurischia

Ursus maritimus tyrannus.

The species of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a descendant of the Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi). Appeared 130,000 years ago and has existed until now. But the evolution of the polar bear grizzly bear was not overnight. No went to bed grizzly and polar bear woke up, no. The change was gradual and evolutionary steps were perhaps different. One of them was the Ursus maritimus tyrannus, the Tyrant polar bear. As the name suggests, refers to a large bear, a tyrant as the famous T.Rex.

White Bear tyrant, was larger than its predecessor and its predecessor. We'll see

SIZE:  3 METERS (10 FT.)
WEIGHT: 800-1000 KG ( 1950 - 2200 LB.)
SIZE: 3,5 METERS (12 FT.)
WEIGHT: 1200-1400 KG  (2100 - 2700 LB.)
SICE: 2,80 METERS (9 FT.)
WEIGHT: 750-1100 KG (1800 - 2050 LB.)

The bear tyrant was the first polar bear and evolved sometime in the Middle Pleistocene. It is believed that the species has evolved about 200,000 years ago from brown bear population which probably to remain insulated by glaciation. It is thought that the number of individuals of the species was scant and could not overcome the competition of species better adapted to the trust as the polar bear. Smaller, and able to feed on smaller creatures and more agile and specialized in ice cold weather and snow.

Although little is known about the diet of this prehistorical animal, it is thought that diet was more similar to the diet of the Grizzly, and therefore was developed as the last ice age, food became scarce, especially the vegetation and other (the polar) better adapted to cold, managed to survive and win the battle for the top of the food chain.

The first bees

A few years ago, an event happened that alarmed the world population: the bees were disappearing. Do not really know why, but I'm sure that human activity played a role, the question is who killed millions of bees, and are still disappearing.

That made ​​me curious enough: there were bees in prehistory, not 10,000 or 15,000 years ago, which we know existed and we know that the honey collected our ancestors, but for many thousands or millions of years.

From the information I have collected I have extracted the following. Prehistoric bees appeared before the appearance of the first humans. The appearance of the first bees (of which there is evidence, the Melittosphex burmensis) dates back about 100 million years. The appearance of these prehistoric bees was a mixture of carnivorous wasps and honey bees now. Their lifestyle was similar to the current bee, living in colonies and you gathered pollen for their young ... or so it seems, a little puzzled because it had features jackets and carnivorous wasps.

Maybe they were omnivores, so I say I'm not an expert, but it is curious that began to develop the first flowers, the most common that we see now, we have then a fruit and then a seed, does just 100 million years, just when bees appeared on Earth ... that chance and effective relationship, after 100 million years, that relationship remains virtually unchanged.
Another curious fact is that since bees first appeared (the Melittosphex burmensis) to the following species of bee on record (Electrapis tornquisti) spent 50 million years ... maybe had not yet developed enough of flowering plants (angiosperms) to accommodate and support to other species of bees .... or maybe, the characteristics of these small carnivorous bees, wasps (3mm) the Melittosphex, allowed them to exterminate their competitors at the time that these appeared ... or maybe, they began to develop new species, these disappeared with the mass extinction of Cretaceous dinosaurs 65 million years ago ....

... curious mystery.


Since I can remember I always wanted to know more and more about dinosaurs, more and more, and my atraena me most was the Pachycephalosaurus. In all the pictures I saw when I was little, it appeared this saurian with what to me looked like a piece of shell that had not yet shaken off. Years later, looking around, I discovered that it was a piece of shell, but its head, its skull formidably thick and strong. Able to withstand the strongest thrusts like the shell of a turtle. I also discovered that the name "Pachycephalosaurus" means literally that: lizard or reptile thick head.

The next thing I asked was why on this lizard had this strange head? My first conclusion was that used to hit, to dispute with other males the dominant male position ... do something like bison and bulls have horns or a bony prominence at the top of the skull. Although I'm not sure why, some experts have dismissed this feature ... but then why has a skull with a 25 cm thick? ... Not everyone agrees that the Pachycephalosaurus not have this bulge to beat their opponents. Many people, as I am, ignorant, think that is the most likely explanation. Others think that the issue that brought its bulging head served to intimidate predators.It is true that possibly get, because along the shell, there were numerous small spiny protrusions capable of hurting. Probably, the predator would attack, receive the following message: I'm not very big, I have no fangs or claws, but I have a weapon / protection in the most fragile part of the body .... the neck and head. What is evident is that its thick head was protected its tiny brain blows ... had special protection. So not only seemed difficult to hunt, but also it was.

The only species of this genus was P. wyomingensis and as the name suggests, was found in the state of Wyoming, in the United States. It was a herbivore (or omnivore) of late Cretaceous and may have been represented in this prehistoric animal illustrations and on the horizon the meteorite that ended with most of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago, along with the T.Rex and Triceratops.

Could reach up to 7 meters in length and can weigh nearly 3 tons. Its hind legs were strong, however the front were small and "weak", for this is thought to be traveling in a biped. Tail was robust and heavy to counteract the weight of the head.
The neck was short and sturdy able to sustain its heavy skull (this could be evidence that it received and provoked strong impact with his head). Its teeth were small and elongated (so you think he could be omnivorous small dams).

Although it has long been known to this lizard, about 80 years, there have been few remains that have been found, so talk it over, it might be speculated.


Now, we know that the transition from reptiles to birds, there was thanks to some small theropods, hunters quickly and nimbly leaping from branch to branch to pounce upon its prey. Increasingly lighter and more agile, were those who had the most jumped protofeathers, who came to the farthest branches and so more prey. Until a jump, went to plan ... a prelude to fly like birds.

One of the clearest examples of these prehistoric animals, with characteristics of birds but without turning it was the Epidendrosaurus, whose name means "lizard on the branches." It is a small theropod maniraptor (hand robber), a taxon whose main feature is the very long, curved fingers ... a feature that served to grip tree branches.

But do not think that the change from reptile to bird was linearly which followed a straight way without errors. The evolution experienced with the species, and species were able to survive for tens of thousands of years and others not, and there is almost no such evidence. But Epidendrosaurus was very successful. In fact, this prehistoric animal lived after the first birds and thousands of years after the first bird which is known Archaeopteryx, this means that even still undergoing evolution and squeezing the characteristics that conditioned the animals, even appeared almost winged reptiles and birds flying when they appeared. The few fossils has been discovered that in the legs and tail feathers had slight marks, similar to those of Microraptor (another small thief).

If we saw now, we look like a bird more than a reptile, if we looked we would see that no beak, but a tiny little mouth full of sharp little teeth and suitable for hunting small reptiles, insects and even mammals were climbing clueless the branches of the trees in late Jurassic. We seem a small bird, it is thought that it was not larger than a dove. The only bones found are young specimens and their skeletons are as big as sparrows.


Who has not seen The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring? Or The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers? o The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King?, probably all have seen and certainly know who Sauron. The science fiction character created by Tolkien and that is the representation of evil. Its eye is all-seeing, is the eye of the devil on earth.

Well curiously, there was a dinosaur that, when discovered, was baptized with the name of Sauroniops, which means "Eye of Sauron". Personally I look weird, I find it very curious that have given the name of a science fiction character to a prehistoric animal, well known for it. So I've been investigating why this curious name and I discovered something: this saurian bones were found a few years ago, in Morocco (Africa) and at first had only one bone, the top of the skull closed eye and I had conical pyramid shape (reminiscent of Mordor mountain), so researchers, in a moment of inspiration, decided to borrow the name of Sauron for naming this prehistoric animal.

Well, part of this curiosity, how was the Sauroniops?

This was a theropod and theropod. The was a large theropod dinosaurs group with common characteristics such as walking with strong hind legs and essentially carnivores. A group where we can meet other dinosaurs like T-Rex or Giganotosaurus.

The species Sauroniops pachytholus, could reach up to 13 meters (42 ft)  and the skull could exceed 1.5 meters (5 ft) in length. A powerful bite of a mouth full of sharp teeth as knives adapted for tearing the body of their prey.

A physical characteristic that would help to distinguish it from other theropods (and in particular of other Carcharodontosaurios, physically very similar) was the bulge protruding from the top of the skull and that was the inspiration for its name. We look like a small T.Rex but one bump on the head.


Actually, the largest and heaviest wolves may be found in cold northern areas of America and Asia, including Canada and Alaska and the Russian steppes. Normally, these wolves do not exceed 80 kg (176 lb), when they do it is because we are talking about huge wolves, strong, sturdy and large and possibly have been bred in captivity. However, the size of these big wolves is nothing to what I could weigh the Epicyon. A prehistoric wolf stood at 170 (360 lb)kg.

Their name, Epicyon, means literally "more than a dog". And it really is bigger than a dog, from snout to tail could exceed 2.5 meters (9 ft.)(which dog measure that?). In addition, the Epicyon was part of the subfamily of Borophaginae, a group of ancient canids whose name means "bone crushing dogs", in reference to its strong and resistant teeth can crush the bones of its prey. Something like the teeth of hyenas ... when they had not yet appeared on earth. To get an idea, it has been observed that a wolf has a bite pressure of 270 kg  (590 lb) as much as Epicyon morphology, this was over 600 kg (1322 lb)... we just got to the 80 (176 lb) kg of pressure.

It is thought that these prehistoric animals lived and hunted in packs ... thus achieving a great success in their survival. Stalked and hunted with its teeth large and small prey such as (antique mammoths, deer and the Synthetoceras or calicotéridos). The success of their survival was such that the Epicyon lived thousands of years, millions of years. Exactly 15 million years is one of the top predators. Virtually the entire Miocene Epicyon lived as it appeared 25 million years ago and disappeared for 5 ..... an eternity compared to the survival of the species homo sapiens.


The Scutosaurus was a prehistoric animal whose name means "reptile shield", referring to the protective layer of the skin formed by bony plates that covered much of the body. Of course, this shield had a protective purpose, its aim was to keep intact the internal parts of the attack Scutosaurus the sharp teeth of his hunters. And this saurian predators tremendous teeth were similar to the saber-toothed tiger. Most were gorgonópsidos, family of which we speak when we name the Inostranceva. A predator which we discussed two weeks ago, LINK.

The Scutosaurus lived during the Permian, 250 million years ago, and their remains have been found in what is now Asia. A continent 250 million years ago, was part of the great supercontinent Pangea.

It was a very large herbivorous reptile. Heavy, more than 500 kg. Was 2.5 meters (8 ft,) long and 1.5 (5 ft.) high. Unlike other reptiles they have their feet on the sides of the body, the Scutosaurus had under its robust body in order to keep that huge weight concentrated. They were also short, so it is understood that not run very fast (certainly more than men). I had the legs on the trunk and they were short would give the less interesting look ... if we saw it from afar, may seem a boar that had taken growth hormones ... or better yet, a giant toad ... anyway. He also had two small horns emerging from its lower jaw and pointed down. The aim of these horns was to protect the neck from those predators who try to hurt the most fragile part of the body: the neck.

Permian These animals were very numerous and found numerous fossils can complete several skeletons. Would be something like the wildebeest of the African savannah. A very large number of wildebeest that serves as food for many of the predators of the savanna. But unlike the African wildebeest, the Scutosaurus lived in small groups, think. Since maintaining that rugged body continually needed to eat grass, and knowing that during the Permian as the main feature was the desert climate, it is thought that this ancient lizard had to travel long distances to find food. If they would formed very elevated groups, had ended with the vegetation of the area very quickly, forcing them to find another that could be fertile ground for miles ... being counterproductive.

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