Showing posts with label prehistoric animals. Show all posts
Showing posts with label prehistoric animals. Show all posts


As its name suggests, (Camarasaurus) comes from camera .... but not the camera taking pictures. It refers to the camera as room as hollow, or internal and covered space. This refers to two bone peculiarities: the vertebrae, though robust, are quite hollow inside, and on the other hand, the skull was square and its huge nostrilsgiving the sense of having a very hollow or empty skull.

But what was a Camarasaurus?

It was a herbivore, a great vegetarian 18 meters long and 18 tons. It was a long sauropod like Diplodocus or Argentinosaurus. It was not as big as them, even for a sauropod, had a rather short neck and tail. However, the body was very strong, so experts estimate that could reach 18 tons.
It lived 150 million years ago in what is now North America.

Another curiosity is that when paleontologists mounted their bones, found a lump of hip bones. It has been speculated about this, and apparently could be that it was another brain, hip, not in the head ... I repeat: another brain in the hip. Finally, another brain or nerve plexus great about it .... still no full consensus.

The other curiosity we can emphasize is the domed shape of its skull. The experts believe that this will served as a sounding board to create a sound effect that could be used to communicate with other Camarasaurus. I imagine a Camarasaurus, warning of the attack by a group of Allosaurus, with a sort of nasal sound, similar to today's large ships when they enter port.
More things:

  • The Camarasaurus could not be applied on its hind legs.
  • Its front legs have claws capable of giving a good blow to their attackers.
  • Analyzed his teeth, thought to eat vegetables harder than Diplodocus.
  • It lived in the Jurassic.
  • To facilitate digestion, it could swallow stones, as is currently done some birds and other herbivores.


Before the Jurassic period, the great age of the dinosaurs, we find the Triassic, not as well known but very interesting events. In this period when the continents are separated from Pangea, facilitating new diversity of different species. During the Triassic mammal-like reptiles disappeared or mammal-like reptiles ... a type of animal that are midway between mammals and reptiles, and it was late in the period when the first dinosaurs dinosaurs (again because it gives me the wins).

An example of these reptiles mamiferoides disappeared are cynodonts. The cynodont is a missing link between reptiles and mammals, in fact, its name literally means "dog teeth" and if we saw it, we remind some kind of dachshund with a little alopecia. It is an animal that does not exceed one meter in length, with a small, thick tail of about 30 cm. It fed on insects and small reptiles.

When it ran, its back was moving from side to side like a lizard running (just imagine a komodo dragon running); but its body has hair and live in burrows with his beloved spouse, like mammals.

Another feature of this prehistoric animal and half mammal, half reptile, is the offspring. The couple lived cynodont within a burrow, and inside this put the eggs were hatching, like most reptiles. However, when pups out breaking the shell, they were totally dependent on their parents. For example we see that existing crocodiles out of the burrow and are adults but reduced, however, the size of most mammals are born and take time to break away from the mother because they are dependent and need to develop a strategy is more ... survival differently. Well so do the cynodonts, pup birth three months are left sucking the milk from the glands of the mother and not leave the den until they are developed enough. This is a clever way that the offspring is not threatened by predators that may have the outside world.

How I love the picture above, it is as if it were a super-predator, dangerous and totally unscrupulous murderer mammiform. But let's face it, maybe it was like in the image below.

The importance of these mammal-like reptiles, is that these small mammals evolve and hairy (the size of mice or squirrels), since dinosaurs were the kings of the food chain for 160 million years. You and I probably have in our genes the essence of cynodonts.


Ladies and gentlemen, sorry for a season without dealing the blog as much as I would have liked, but that is over. Moreover, nothing happens, the dinosaurs are timeless and, in gratitude and with intent to redeem myself, I want to show you one of the most picturesque dinosaurs that ever lived. This is the Chirostenotes, the "narrow hands."

You see the image below, you will understand what the name refers Chirostenotes or "close hand" ... no trick, its hands were narrow.

The "hands" of this saurian, were long and narrow, with very long fingers ending in sharp claws. That is the main feature.

Another feature of this prehistoric animal was its head. Look at the image below.

You know who is? As this animal is a Cassowary, a bird now living in Australia and New Guinea ... and is very aggressive. It is thought that the ridge has the Cassowary is similar to that which took the Chirostenotes. In fact, it seemed a little ... even thought this lizard was a bird. It had feathers, was bipedal, lakes and light arms and a crest like a Cassowary. But it really was not a bird.

Chirostenotes's jaw was sort of a parrot but was full of teeth. Media about 3 meters long and when were stood as tall as the average man. Grew to weigh no more than 60 kg. And think were fast and agile hunters who traveled at high speed and making great leaps and light careers.

It lived 75 million years ago in what is now Canada. And it is known today more than ever, especially for children, as it is one of the protagonists of the series of drawings Dinotren. Is smug and was known as Keenan.


If retrocediéramos in time 475 million years to the Ordovician, we would see that our planet Earth is totally different as we know. It is very hot, and it's easy to find places with temperatures exceeding 50 º. The continents were all together and formed what is known as Gondwana, an enormous supercontinent, and therefore, if there was a supercontienente also had a superocéano called Panthalassa, meaning "all the seas".

Most would find animal life in the sea, and of course, we would not find, orcas, whales or sharks, or even, similar animals. Arthropods and vertebrates ruled the prehistoric seas and began to emphasize vertebrate species timidly, promised much for its featuresin particular the spine.

One of the first was the Arandaspis marine arthropods, one of the first fish that descended from Pikaia and that would lead to the wide range of armored fish as Dunkleosteus.

This aquatic fish, just have information. It was found some 60 years ago in Alice Spings, Australia and its name comes from the tribe that inhabited those lands (Aranda). It was about 15 cm and started having bony plates on the body that gave some protection, began to form the shield would then armoured prehistoric fish.

These fish were small, and a feature of them was that they had jaw (some experts think they did have), only a small, hard lips that helped him to swallow everything that was while prospecting in search of food. In our view, it would seem a tadpole, but bigger and harder. Anyway, as I introduce you to one of the first vertebrates to have lived on Earth and apparently, succeeded because it appeared a large number of new species.

Giant baboon

We all know that we come from Australopithecus, one of our ancestor that lived about 3 million years ago in the African plains. Was the size of a chimpanzee, maybe a little bigger, and the main feature is that it walked on two legs. For this ancestor must be careful lest he deal with large hyenas, lions giants, especially with a cousin who still have descendants today: giant baboon (Theropithecus brumpti).
Baboons (or Papios) current are very fierce, in some cases, a male only stood up to leopards weighing more than twice and have formidable weapons ... imagine what they can do in droves. As for weapons, the baboon is a wonder: is agile, fast, fierce fangs and has serious injuries that may infringe their predators. They do not usually spend more than 40 kg, and usually live in herds gathering, are omnivores. Peaceful coexistence is with them, and that is why coming up and impalas graze beside ... until suddenly, they go crazy, they catch a baby impala and cut up to bite. The same goes for other animals such as hares, rabbits, small antelopes and birds.

3 million years ago, our ancestor, Australopithecus could be eaten by giant baboons, as current devour small antelopes. They lived in the same places and in some ways were rivals and as rivals, Austra had much to lose. While Australopithecus could reach 60 or 70 kg in weight, the Giant Baboon exceeded 200 kg. And while standing Australopithecus measured 1.3 meters, the Giant Baboon reaches 1.90 or 2 meters. So these two (the Australopithecus and the Giant Baboon) shared resources, but perhaps, once the big fish ate the kid ....

Perhaps 3 million years ago, we would see a pair of giant baboons on a zebra, trying it down to eat it and it could be a zebra or hyena or a leopard, or a wildebeest, or maybe a monkey smaller but more important in human evolutionary history .... Australopithecus.


When I saw it for the first time (Cretacic) Jurassic Park ...

I thought ... - it is impossible that this creature may exist, they have been wrong. But I was the one who was wrong was thinking this ... it really did exist. It was a lizard in the Cretaceous that lived 200 million years ago in what is now North America and parts of China. Its name refers to its main feature: Dilophosaurus means "lizard two peaks". A bone crests that run along the cranial vault and are coming together in approaching the nostrils and give it a look as angry.

But apart from these two bony protrusions, it is noteworthy that the two membranes are born from the beginning of the neck and which maintains folded until suddenly extends them. Are thought to this membrane was deployed when was intended to look bigger compared to others that might arise as a threat, rather large lizards or other species of the same species. At initially thought that also served as a deterrent in clashes pairing ... but maybe this idea is wrong because females also exhibit membrane. Finally, females may also have to fight each other for territory.

These membranes resemble the actual Frilled, but much larger. In fact, the Dilophosaurus was a super-predator of the time. Media about 7 meters long (22 ft.) and weighed about 350 kg  (770 lb.).... in fact it was light enough for its size. It was fast, bipedal, with skull rather small and not massive, and long and slender neck and tail. In its skull had a boss that we have appointed a small crest bone.

By their fossil remains are thought to the Dilofosauro, was devoted to feeding carrion and small game, as it had no bite, no mass, nor necessary for hunting large prey strength. Another idea that seems well founded is that since it has long, thin teeth, with long necks and light heads, it is possible that much of their diet from fish outside.

And finally, something I do not know, where Jurassic Park were removed this prehistoric animal they are poisonous? That is not proven.


Now Troodon has thousands of fans who are children of 2-7 years old ... or a little more. Although it was one of the first dinosaurs found, now it gets to know as one of the characters in a cartoon series, a character friendly and fun. But that image is far removed from reality. In fact, "Troodon" name literally means "wounding tooth", so get an idea.

The Troodon belongs to the group of theropods (prehistoric animals with strong back legs). A suborder where we find most frightening terrestrial species of the story ... as the Spinosaurus, Tyrannosaurus rex or Allosaurus. Referring to the teeth, the Troödon were quite different than that of other carnivores mentioned.
The teeth of T. Rex were as heavy knives, however, were those of Troodon elongated narrow and sharp edges saws ideal for tearing flesh.

Indeed, this animal lived in the upper Cretácido became extinct 70 million years *. It was a prehistoric carnivore forests in what is now North America. But it never became an apex predator as their size was relatively small and could not compete with other theropods.

It reminds me a little velociraptor. First because of its size and secondly because they were very similar morphologically. The two, Velociraptor and Troodon, were very close (evolutionarily speaking) birds and probably both had feathers. Although they could not fly ... we leave that to the birds. But maybe it big jumps or even plan a few meters.

The Troodon was twice as large as the velociraptor. Was elongated like this, also agile predator and 1 meter in height and two in length, weighing up to 50 kg. A Trodonte of these, a human could make enough damage or even kill it.

But do not demonize an animal and say it's bad. But if you're a parent and your child likes Troodon, you know it's not the friendly character we see in the series of "Dinosaur Train". He was an active hunter, a predator elongated as a young Komodo dragon but occasionally will put on its back legs.

* If you look at this picture, you will see that next to the Troodon's one of the "Aliens" that were found in Roswell. According to a paleontologist: these alien beings would be the trodontes that survived the mass extinction of dinosaurs and evolved ... Over millions of years evolved and could reach out to Earth, then returned and are in Roswell .... curious ...


Evolution along the time has not followed a linear increase. The diversity and number of species and individuals increase and decrease depending on the environment of each historical moment and sometimes abruptly. Evolution has had many ups and downs and as at some times, the Earth could be proud of the number of animals that lived in the past in this life has been about to disappear altogether. We are talking about the great extinctions. Surely you know the extinction that ended the hegemony of big lizards, which ended with the T-Rex or Triceratops, perhaps because the nearest extinction and we have seen in many documentaries. This extinction which is popularly known as the extinction of the dinosaurs, and occurred in the Cretaceous 65 million years ago, exterminated 40% of life on Earth. Maybe we think a lot, 40% of human life on Earth would end up with almost 3,000 million people, with for example, all people living in the southern hemisphere, but if we look at the mass extinctions that have occurred , there is a very important extinction: the mass extinction of Permian-Triassic. This was the extinction that nearly destroyed of life on Earth.

The Permian extinction wiped out more than 70% of life on earth, and 95% of marine life. To continue with absurd comparisons, it is as if they disappeared all people in the world, except those who live in Mexico ... for example.
Disease, starvation, earthquakes, catastrophic weather events were the survivors had to endure 250,000,000 years ago.

And what were the largest causes of extinctions on Earth?

There are several theories about the causes of extinction, and as we discuss all take a long time, we discuss only the experts think that possible: Meteorite and Volcanism Theory.

250 million years ago, there were on Earth, exactly in which today is Siberia a continuing series of Mega volcanoes spewing material from the bowels of the planet for thousands and thousands of years (80,000 years). These surface megavolcanes threw 4 million km3 of lava. About 40,000 times the Krakatoa.

The CO2, lava, pyroclastic flows from volcanoes and other gases could increase the temperature of the Earth, it is estimated that in 5th.

Now comes the second part of the theory ... rather the first. A few years ago discovered a large crater on Antarctica, exactly what is known as Wilkes Land. This crater has a diameter of 450 km and it is estimated that the meteorite that caused it could measure almost 50 km (nearly 5 times more than the meteor that killed the dinosaurs.)

The meteorite discovered, made ​​a great impact on our planet, for example, separated Australia from Antarctica when they were together and formed the Gondwana continent 250 million years ago ... 250 million years, precisely the date on which occurred the volvanes. That's why many experts geologists attribute the origin of these supervolcanoes the ripple effect that could produce the meteorite on Earth.

Of course, along with supervolcanoes, the effect of the meteorite caused further increase in global temperature. It is thought that up to 12 degrees to increase the temperature of sea water, produced from melting methane hydrate deposits, which by pressure and cold were in solid state. Following this event was intoxicated marine life slowly almost to extermination.

This is summarized and anyone interested will easily find more information about it. Finally, say that the Permian extinction wiped out some prehistoric animals known as Scutosaurus, the DIMETRODON or Inostrancevia or insects as Meganeuropsis.

But thanks to what is perhaps the fate, life continued and developed further evolution to what we know today: the human species ... the last great extinction.


I'm surprised that after writing more than 200 prehistoric animals, we still have not spoken of Megatherium, prehistoric animal that existed until 8000 years ago and, a

The Megatherium was a big herbivore, like a Sloth of the currently but giant. As a the sloths current, the Megatherium also eat the foliage. But the latter did not climb into the branches, mostly because it weighed over 5 tons (imagine an elephant up to the branch of a baobab, the same impression as the Megatherium would see in a tree). As measured 6 meters and stood on two legs reached the treetops and branches pulled down with their huge claws. Lately, is considering the option that it was an omnivorous animal, and also eating tons of leaves and branches, ever eat carrion or some unsuspecting animal ... because seeing how robust your bones and weight of this animal, we can not say it was a hunter agile, stealthy and fast.

This prehistoric animal was so large that a healthy individual was not able to kill any predator. Maybe some guy old, young or injured could fall prey to a group of giant hyenas, wolves, saber tooth or some Arctodus or cave bear.

The Megatherium, appeared on Earth 3 million years ago between the Pliocene and Pleistocene and disappeared 8,000 years ago in Central and South America. It is believed that the main cause of their extinction was the proliferation of a dangerous animal, a predator insatiable .... I speak human being.

In this video we will see that this prehistoric animal was not as shy as its relative the current lazy ...

What you do not know what is below. ????

 Well, it is a cave that was excavated by a megaterio and served as den / shelter . This in particular is about 200 m long and was excavated about 20,000 years ago .


Within the family of ceratopsidae (those horned animals that lived in the prehistory), we can find some animals we know. Since Torosaurus (large and with two horns) to the Eotriceratops, Triceratops (always represented fighting a T. Rex and three horns) and Pentaceratops (smaller than the other two but with 5 horns) ...

As you can see, in this short list you can see that the number of horns increases between 2 and 5. At the end of the list more would see the ceratopsian horns, Styracosaurus, the protagonist of this entry.

The name means lizard Styracosaurus horns.

It had a horn on the front of the head, one big and long, but most of the horns, to which its name refers, are those found in the "wheel" of the head, a bone coating that protects the neck. A hedge that protects the neck from predators carnivores such as T. Rex. But the horns of Styracosaurus, not small bony protuberances, horns are up to 60 cm long and 15 cm wide at the base. This contained the snacks in the neck and the same also used for exposing himself to females.

So, this herbivore than 3 tons and 6 meters long would be therefore difficult to kill prey. Fossils found dead near ceratopsidae Tiranosauros like Styracosaurus who have tried to hunt. Hunt In Styracosaurus, T. Rex could be gored to death.

The horns and shells daubed the neck, the most vulnerable part of the animal, predators could not bite the neck without risk a fatal goring. The predator hunting tactics would try to turn the Styracosaurus and put belly up, where the T.Rex would find the most soft, unprotected part and away from the huge antlers.

This large herbivorous mid Cretaceous lived in what is now North America. And from afar, remind us a huge rhino with large spiked collar and long tail. Indeed, like other ceratopsidae, had a mouth shaped peak finished ... psittacosaurus reminds me.


I often think that the experts not too fussed for naming dinosaurs. For example, if they find a lizard in Alberta (a province of Canada), as they call Albertosaurus. Well, I'm no expert and I guess that is a valid way to classify other prehistoric animals.

And how was Albertosaurus? Well, this animal had many curious things. For example, Albertosaurus was a fearsome hunter, its bite while being less potent than the T.Rex, was very powerful, as well as the largest of the crocodiles, which are animals with bite even more powerful live.
We could say it was like a smaller version of Tyrannosaurus, but not that much less effective as a predator. Because when weighing 2 tons (nearly half of T. Rex), Albertosaurus could be quicker, faster and agile. An estimated could exceed 50 km / h (31 mi/h)... To get an idea, Usain Bolt (the fastest man in the world) reaches 37 km / h (22 mi/h).

The dimensions of this predator prehistoric were:

Weight: up to 2 tons (4400 lb).
Length: 10 meters (33 ft).
Skull: 1.2 meters (4 ft).
Height: 3.5 meters (10 ft).

As you see, it was so small, was a smaller version of T.Rex, and in fact, the only impediment to not become the apex predator of the late Cretaceous in North America, was this, that the T.Rex occupied that position.

Other characteristics of Albertosaurus was that had small arms, hardly useless.
Also had bony protrusions on the eyes which had the role of protecting the eye when producing its deadly bite.
And finally, have sharp teeth on the inside a form lumber, this allowed it to tear the flesh once bitten and pulled with his strong neck.
Albertosaurus really is the name of a genus and now consists of three species, but the most representative was Arctunguis Albertosaurus.

Thylacosmilus and curious history.

When there are two animals that are very similar in weight, size, physical characteristics and occupying the same ecological niche but living in different places and have a different origin, we call this phenomenon convergent evolution. An example would be that we can illustrate the flight of pterodactyls and bats, both fly in a similar way but come from families, genera and different orders.

Well, now let's focus on the case of Thylacosmilus ... if we saw in reality, across the road in front of our house, we might seem an early saber-toothed, a prehistoric Smilodon... But although its appearance was similar, their underclass, order, family, are different Sabertooth Tiger. The Thylacosmilus had nothing to do with the Smilodon, was actually a marsupial and even looked like Sabretooth, was evolutionarily closer to that of a kangaroo Sabretooth we know.

This prehistoric animal appeared in South America about 7 million years ago, when it was an island that was separate from North America. It was stocky, though not enough the Smilodon, as large as the current Cougars and had fangs shaped knives about 15 cm, but unlike the Smilodon, Thylacosmilus fangs did not stop growing. In addition, the fangs are embedded in a cavity having the jaw bone and giving it a very peculiar appearance to its skull. In fact, its name means "pouch saber", referring to this feature.
Possibly be true that were the apex predator in South America, but this lasted until which lasted insulation island continent. This occurred in the late Pliocene and Central America new species were introduced from the north, including a saber-toothed cat but also bigger, more corpulent and willing to put at the top of the food chain. The Thylacosmilus rival, the known Smilodon, had arrived and soon took the place of the predator.

Woolly rhinoceros

Just as the mammoth, the woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta) was a prehistoric animal of a cold and dry climate typical of the last glaciation. It was great for retaining better heat also had a long horn and leaning forward to remove the snow and reach the food and a double mane of long, thick hair on the outside and a thin layer inside that isolated it from the cold. The truth is that it was a survivor of that hostile climate and long winters survived in the cold, lonely steppes of Eurasia. From Spain to China. And our forefathers could see.

As is the case with the current rhino, woolly rhinoceros was a strong animal, hard and grumpy, it was awesome. In fact it is thought that in their extinction, 8,000 years ago, the man was not a decisive role. Was mainly due to the disappearance of their habitat was not Neanderthals hunted nor old nor homo sapiens populations. How to drive a spear into an animal with a fat layer of 30 cm, and a hard coat like a wild boar, but much longer and abundant? Yes, you could, but much nearing.

However, experts have observed in well-preserved bones, there were marks of predators. Agile and fast predators that hunted in packs, such as wolves and hyenas.

The size of this rhino of the ice age was a bit higher than any current rhino. Although I must say that some species were slightly smaller.

For example, woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) was the largest species. It measured more than 4 meters long and 2 meters high at the withers, its weight exceeded 4 tons. It had two horns, the largest could reach a meter in length and was holding a large and heavy head that simultaneously was supported by some powerful muscles that were inserted and formed the hump and characteristic of these animals.
Another species that should be noted is the Tibetan woolly rhino. This, as its name indicates lived in Tibet, over 3,000 meters high. This prehistoric animal is the oldest known (3.5 million years ago) and possibly other species evolved the Tibetan woolly. This on the theory that these animals evolved into Tibetan steppes of China and Mongolia.


Archaeopteryx is the oldest known bird. While the Microraptor is considered a dinosaur with feathers like a bird, Archaeopteryx is already a bird. The first bird ... Jurassic.
They are very similar, are common features of other theropods: bone thing, sharp claws, beak with small but sharp teeth and feathers, both forelimbs and hind.

But unlike Microraptor, Archaeopteryx flew better, not only was involved in planning from branch to branch. Perhaps its flight is not elegant as the an albatross or as fast as a swift, but was the first to fly. and that is a lot. Possibly its fly mode would seem very strange if we saw now. Archaeopteryx also had long feathers on the hind legs, along with feathers front, it flew in a strange mode. Some think that because of this, was more agile in flight modern birds, but their ability to fly long distances would be less.

Not very big, measuring just 35 cm, and weighed just under 500 gr. Its brain was proportionally greater than other theropods and structure of his ear and was similar to that of modern birds.

We could say that its size was similar to that of a magpie .... Consider the differences:

Incidentally, the Velociraptor, is a close relative.

Saber-toothed tiger or Smilodon

We talked of many prehistoric animals in this blog, since Anomalocaris of more than 500 million years, to the bird Moa, who died just over 500 years. Yes it is true that we speak of Smilodon, when we saw the American Cave Lion. But I thought that it was time to talk only to Smilodon, the saber-toothed tiger authentic.

Within the genus Smilodon, which means "saber tooth" we find three species: the Smilodon gracilis ("Smilodon thin"), Smilodon fatalis and the close cousin and we like the Smilodon populator.

From now on, when we speak of the saber-toothed tiger, we refer to Smilodon populator.

The sabertooth  was arguably the most specialized of all feline. Its body was robust, very, very robust. To get an idea of how strong it was, a male Bengal tiger now average just over 720 lb (320 kg). A Sabertooth, the same size as the tiger can weigh up to 900 lb (400 kg). The 160 lb (80 kg) of difference, are practically muscle. It would be like a tiger that had taken steroids.
But it is so strong not due to a whim of nature or to devote himself to do pushups every day, no. The sabertooth musculature, is related to their prey, nature is wise.

These two features together (teeth and muscles), made ​​of Smilodon a predator of big beasts. Giant sloths, horses, bison and even prehistoric mammoths fell into your diet. The way they hunted the megafauna in South America was by ambuscade *. Surprised their prey and reached for one of its sides. It hitched with their long claws and a hook and tugged them until toppled. When for example the mammoth was shot down, penetrating its teeth in the throat. Then the neck stretched and tore, ripping and neck veins and trachea.

Even being a prehistoric predator able to hunt large animals, Sabretooth had to deal with other predators that, individually or in groups, could snatch the prey ... Bears like Bulldog, or the giant wolf.

But competition was not the reason for their disappearance. The reason was specialization. Was not able to run long distance, as the climate of Earth was warming up (from the peak of the last ice age) the megafauna began to disappear. And apparently, men hunted large prey and therefore, were a problem to those who already had the Smilodon. The Smilodon appeared 1 million years ago and disappeared 10,000 years ago.

 It is thought that the Sabertooth tiger hunting in ambuscade because he was a great runner. The huge muscles had generated much heat and would have suffocated in long races. Also, cats have a long tail serves for balance, while also running. The tail of Smilodon did not exceed 35 cm, for experts have concluded that there was a good runner.

The Pentaceratops.

To end this year, 2012, best animal to learn that the prehistoric Pentaceratops. It could be any other, nothing would happen, but this is a little special. Basically, the reason that I consider this animal special, not because I have three horns and call Pentaceratops (5 horns), but because it is the largest land animal with the head of the whole story.

If someone calls you "big head" is because they do not know the Pentaceratops. An animal with a head of up to 3.5 meters (12 ft). A strong neck muscles full of robust bones embedded in supporting a large skull with a bone covered with thorns wheel and 2 meters (7 ft) in diameter. This collar bone was a formidable protector and a dominant male signal.

The Pentaceratops was taller and thinner the triceratops, less heavy, but a little higher. With strong legs, almost 6 tons, as a male African elephant, and 8 meters (26 ft) long. It, like other ceratopsians, was an herbivore and gregarious. With its enormous beak similar to a parrot, tore branches and bark to eat.

The Pentaceratops lived around the Campanian, Late Cretaceous 75 million years ago. Therefore triceratops existed before and not had to face with T.Rex. However, if you had the predator to Daspletosaurus or Acrocanthosaurus.

By the way, we see its curious name: your name means five horns and really have 3 is because it had two great apophysis (build bone) protruding from their cheeks. Views with meat, muscle and skin, these bumps closely resemble the bumps of the warthog.


This post refers to the end of the Permian (250 million years ago), just as is produced the great extinction that wiped out 95% of life that lived the Earth.

We talked a little moment in the history of the Earth, but that influenced the species appear in the next million years. Let us see:

It is thought that the Permian extinction was caused by the continued and exaggerated emanations of lava and gases that literally suffocated the Planet. Some events that ended with the great synapsids that ruled the prehistoric Earth, and they were a kind of curious animals, with characteristics of mammals, but reptiles ... some are called "mammal-reptiles".
The peculiarity of these animals is that they were warm-blooded. And although in principle we think this is an advantage over cold-blooded animals, the truth is that at the decisive point of extinction, was a real problem. We must consider that for an animal to keep warm blood should eat up to 20 times more calories than a cold-blooded animal. A treat for a time when food was becoming scarce.

In a world dark and wounded animals that died were the first warm-blooded. Instead of cold-blooded animals could resist. Now when entrael Proterosuchus in history.

The importance of the survival of this genus (Proterosuchus) is that, because it, envolved all the dinosaurs and birds we know today. If Proterosuchus not have survived, probably we would not know either the T.Rex, or to Spinosaurio, or the Argentinosaurus.

And how was this prehistoric animal?

Well, to get an idea, the Proterosuchus was similar to a three-meter crocodile. Hunted in ambush near streams and lakes. Like crocodiles, his eyes on the top of his head to stalk their prey. The snout ending in hook.

Finally, gender is Proterosuchus in the history of evolution, an individual as important as what could be the Pikaia or Ichthyostega.

Bruhathkayosaurus measuring

As we have the latest posts dedicated to mammals, marsupials antique and prehistoric arthropods, the truth is that this time I wanted to speak again about dinosaurs, large reptiles ... titanic sized reptiles ... I love it!

The prehistoric animal which we will discuss today, is called Bruhathkayosaurus (which does not refer to a yoga posture which we might call "the reptile"). Its name comes from the Sanskrit bruhath (बृहत) "big, fat", and Kaya (काय) "body" and then, from the Greek meaning saurus reptile: the lizard of large, heavy body.

The Bruhathkayosaurus, and specifically the spice called matleyi, was a giant sauropod, titanosaurids-called. A titanic as the famous sauropod Argentinosaurus and Diplodocus: large herbivorous reptiles 4 legs, long necks and long tails.

By name, Bruhathkayosaurus, we can intuit that the bones have been found in India. And their fossilized bones can extract and calculate the dimensions of this amazing beast. Compare with the two other known sauropods.

The Diplodocus was 30 feet and 80 tons.

The Argentinosaurus 35 meters and 100 tons (some think more).

The Bruhathkayosaurus measuring 40 meters and could weigh up to 140 tons.

If one day we will be sure of the existence of Amphicoelias, Bruhathkayosaurus could say that would be the second largest dinosaur on Earth ... but since we are not sure of the existence of Amphicoelias we can say: the Bruhathkayosaurus, the animal was longer and heavier than ever existed. I will not get into an argument about its dimensions ... if yes, if not ... the point is that rivaled in size with the known Argentinosaurus. (sorry for the Argentines who were proud of the huge prehistoric animal bearing the name of their country).

Keep in mind that 140 tons is a lot, sometimes, we get lost in numbers and costs us get an idea of ​​the size ... for example, we can compare it with 21 male African elephants.

The Bruhathkayosaurus lived in the late Cretaceous period in the Maastrichtian, 70 million years ago in what is now the Indian subcontinent.
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