Showing posts with label Pleistocene. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Pleistocene. Show all posts

Panthera tigris acutidens


I'll tell you a secret. When we speak of prehistoric big cats, the most powerful, the most dangerous and terrible hunter, it's easy to come to mind two species: the Cave Lion (Panthera leo atrox) and the saber-toothed tiger (Similodon).

But really, there is another species that is probably the most terrible, strongest, largest cat that ever lived and that's a real unknown to the general public, it is the Panthera tigris acutidens. A cat can only hunt animals such as Stegodon (which is a type a type of small elephant) or Calicoterio. To get an idea, this prehistoric cat could hunt down an actual cape buffalo. One of those we see in documentaries Africa needed 4 or 5 lions to tear it down.

Panthera tigris acutidens, as the name suggests "tigris" is a kind of tiger. In fact it is considered a direct ancestor of the Asian tiger, the largest today.

Little is known of this beast. It was not only larger than the largest tiger today, it was also more massive. Therefore, it is thought that it was not a long distance runner, but short and quick, races depended stalking and grounds overgrown jungle that allowed close enough to approach their prey in a quick race. It is believed that could weigh 450 kg (992 lb), 100 kg (220 lb) more than the Siberian tiger. Moreover, the cross came to 1.30 meters and tail, could reach almost 4 meters (13 ft,).



The tusks of this were in line, about 15 cm in length. And when I was able to reach its prey nailed them like sharp daggers or spine smashed or crushed trachea hunted animal.

He lived 2 million years ago and it is not known exactly when it died ... in the early Pleistocene. In cold, snowy woods of what is now China and other parts of Asia, where its winter whitish camufrarse allowed.

Ursus maritimus tyrannus.


The species of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a descendant of the Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi). Appeared 130,000 years ago and has existed until now. But the evolution of the polar bear grizzly bear was not overnight. No went to bed grizzly and polar bear woke up, no. The change was gradual and evolutionary steps were perhaps different. One of them was the Ursus maritimus tyrannus, the Tyrant polar bear. As the name suggests, refers to a large bear, a tyrant as the famous T.Rex.

White Bear tyrant, was larger than its predecessor and its predecessor. We'll see


POLAR BEAR
SIZE:  3 METERS (10 FT.)
WEIGHT: 800-1000 KG ( 1950 - 2200 LB.)
POLAR BEAR TYRANNUS
SIZE: 3,5 METERS (12 FT.)
WEIGHT: 1200-1400 KG  (2100 - 2700 LB.)
GRIZZLY BEAR
SICE: 2,80 METERS (9 FT.)
WEIGHT: 750-1100 KG (1800 - 2050 LB.)



The bear tyrant was the first polar bear and evolved sometime in the Middle Pleistocene. It is believed that the species has evolved about 200,000 years ago from brown bear population which probably to remain insulated by glaciation. It is thought that the number of individuals of the species was scant and could not overcome the competition of species better adapted to the trust as the polar bear. Smaller, and able to feed on smaller creatures and more agile and specialized in ice cold weather and snow.

Although little is known about the diet of this prehistorical animal, it is thought that diet was more similar to the diet of the Grizzly, and therefore was developed as the last ice age, food became scarce, especially the vegetation and other (the polar) better adapted to cold, managed to survive and win the battle for the top of the food chain.



Megatherium

I'm surprised that after writing more than 200 prehistoric animals, we still have not spoken of Megatherium, prehistoric animal that existed until 8000 years ago and, a

The Megatherium was a big herbivore, like a Sloth of the currently but giant. As a the sloths current, the Megatherium also eat the foliage. But the latter did not climb into the branches, mostly because it weighed over 5 tons (imagine an elephant up to the branch of a baobab, the same impression as the Megatherium would see in a tree). As measured 6 meters and stood on two legs reached the treetops and branches pulled down with their huge claws. Lately, is considering the option that it was an omnivorous animal, and also eating tons of leaves and branches, ever eat carrion or some unsuspecting animal ... because seeing how robust your bones and weight of this animal, we can not say it was a hunter agile, stealthy and fast.


This prehistoric animal was so large that a healthy individual was not able to kill any predator. Maybe some guy old, young or injured could fall prey to a group of giant hyenas, wolves, saber tooth or some Arctodus or cave bear.

The Megatherium, appeared on Earth 3 million years ago between the Pliocene and Pleistocene and disappeared 8,000 years ago in Central and South America. It is believed that the main cause of their extinction was the proliferation of a dangerous animal, a predator insatiable .... I speak human being.

In this video we will see that this prehistoric animal was not as shy as its relative the current lazy ...



What you do not know what is below. ????



 Well, it is a cave that was excavated by a megaterio and served as den / shelter . This in particular is about 200 m long and was excavated about 20,000 years ago .



Woolly rhinoceros


Just as the mammoth, the woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta) was a prehistoric animal of a cold and dry climate typical of the last glaciation. It was great for retaining better heat also had a long horn and leaning forward to remove the snow and reach the food and a double mane of long, thick hair on the outside and a thin layer inside that isolated it from the cold. The truth is that it was a survivor of that hostile climate and long winters survived in the cold, lonely steppes of Eurasia. From Spain to China. And our forefathers could see.

As is the case with the current rhino, woolly rhinoceros was a strong animal, hard and grumpy, it was awesome. In fact it is thought that in their extinction, 8,000 years ago, the man was not a decisive role. Was mainly due to the disappearance of their habitat was not Neanderthals hunted nor old nor homo sapiens populations. How to drive a spear into an animal with a fat layer of 30 cm, and a hard coat like a wild boar, but much longer and abundant? Yes, you could, but much nearing.

However, experts have observed in well-preserved bones, there were marks of predators. Agile and fast predators that hunted in packs, such as wolves and hyenas.

The size of this rhino of the ice age was a bit higher than any current rhino. Although I must say that some species were slightly smaller.

For example, woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) was the largest species. It measured more than 4 meters long and 2 meters high at the withers, its weight exceeded 4 tons. It had two horns, the largest could reach a meter in length and was holding a large and heavy head that simultaneously was supported by some powerful muscles that were inserted and formed the hump and characteristic of these animals.
Another species that should be noted is the Tibetan woolly rhino. This, as its name indicates lived in Tibet, over 3,000 meters high. This prehistoric animal is the oldest known (3.5 million years ago) and possibly other species evolved the Tibetan woolly. This on the theory that these animals evolved into Tibetan steppes of China and Mongolia.

Saber-toothed tiger or Smilodon

We talked of many prehistoric animals in this blog, since Anomalocaris of more than 500 million years, to the bird Moa, who died just over 500 years. Yes it is true that we speak of Smilodon, when we saw the American Cave Lion. But I thought that it was time to talk only to Smilodon, the saber-toothed tiger authentic.

Within the genus Smilodon, which means "saber tooth" we find three species: the Smilodon gracilis ("Smilodon thin"), Smilodon fatalis and the close cousin and we like the Smilodon populator.

From now on, when we speak of the saber-toothed tiger, we refer to Smilodon populator.

The sabertooth  was arguably the most specialized of all feline. Its body was robust, very, very robust. To get an idea of how strong it was, a male Bengal tiger now average just over 720 lb (320 kg). A Sabertooth, the same size as the tiger can weigh up to 900 lb (400 kg). The 160 lb (80 kg) of difference, are practically muscle. It would be like a tiger that had taken steroids.
But it is so strong not due to a whim of nature or to devote himself to do pushups every day, no. The sabertooth musculature, is related to their prey, nature is wise.

These two features together (teeth and muscles), made ​​of Smilodon a predator of big beasts. Giant sloths, horses, bison and even prehistoric mammoths fell into your diet. The way they hunted the megafauna in South America was by ambuscade *. Surprised their prey and reached for one of its sides. It hitched with their long claws and a hook and tugged them until toppled. When for example the mammoth was shot down, penetrating its teeth in the throat. Then the neck stretched and tore, ripping and neck veins and trachea.

Even being a prehistoric predator able to hunt large animals, Sabretooth had to deal with other predators that, individually or in groups, could snatch the prey ... Bears like Bulldog, or the giant wolf.

But competition was not the reason for their disappearance. The reason was specialization. Was not able to run long distance, as the climate of Earth was warming up (from the peak of the last ice age) the megafauna began to disappear. And apparently, men hunted large prey and therefore, were a problem to those who already had the Smilodon. The Smilodon appeared 1 million years ago and disappeared 10,000 years ago.



 It is thought that the Sabertooth tiger hunting in ambuscade because he was a great runner. The huge muscles had generated much heat and would have suffocated in long races. Also, cats have a long tail serves for balance, while also running. The tail of Smilodon did not exceed 35 cm, for experts have concluded that there was a good runner.

Madtsoia bai

Imagine dragging 3.000 lb of muscle stealthily lurking in the swamps and the darkness of the jungle. A being with a cold stare that shakes because it reflects the very death. I'm talking about THE WORLD'S LARGEST SNAKE AND THE STORY ... And prehistory.

The Madtsoia bai or as it is commonly known "the grandmother of Cow Canyon" is a species of the genus madtsoia and is possibly the largest snake ever found and even bigger than Titanoboa.

In 1931, evolutionary paleontologist George Gaylord Simpson found the fossilized skeleton of a snake in the town of Cow Canyon, located in the southeast of the province of Chubut (Argentina).
This prehistoric animal was a snake constrictor, meaning they hunted their prey by strangulation, not poison, squeezing and squeezing its prey more and more each time the prey exhales the snake tightened until the victim can not recover this vital air and dies by suffocation.

The estimated sizes for this giant snake is between 50 and 65 feets, diameter 2 feets and weighing up to 1.5 tons. For example, the current Anaconda fails, almost never, 8 meters, 35 cm in diameter and 450 lb ... and is the largest in the world.

On the other hand, imagine the animals would be able to swallow this thing of prehistory. If you lived in Argentina Patagonia 90 million years ago and has been extinct for 2 (or so they say), bony part of the Cretaceous and Pleistocene, could engulf prey as Abelisaurus terrible, a great Toxodon or even one of the first cats that Smilodon drinking approached carelessly.

15 m years ago began a process of cooling and desertification of Patagonia, which was gradually shaping the current face of the region as well as climatic and environmental conditions that we know at present.

The giant snakes do not support these changes and became extinct, or in some cases, retreated northward, giving rise to the current species of large snakes.

Bison latifrons

On with huge animals. You've ever been near a bison? Are enormous strengths. His big head and his eyes intimidates let you know that if lash, nothing could be done. The current bison weigh no more than 1,500 kg have a maximum height of 1.80 and about 3 feet long.

But there was an even greater bison, Bison latifrons was called. A huge beast, 2.5 meters high and 5 meters long. And a mass of 2,000 kg and full of strong muscles in the neck that held a big head, only his head was heavier than any of us. Not only that, his head held an antler of more than 2.5 meters long, exceeded in size by counting animals, such as Megaloceros giganteus.

Currently, the family of the largest bovine animal is Bos gaurus that can measure up to 4.60m long and 2.20m high.

The Bison latifrons get other names like giant bison or bison ice age, and who lived during the Pleistocene in North America.


Image Shayne's Photo Journal.

Gigantopithecus, the biggest monkey story.

From 1 million years ago until 300,000 years ago (just a little more), there was the bigfoot or the yeti. A real yeti no kidding. Gigantopithecus was called, and was a relative of our species. It was the largest primate WHO LIVED ON EARTH. He lived in modern-day China, India and Vietnam and may have coexisted with Homo erectus in Southeast Asia. Huge, strong, more than our nearest ancestor "Goliath" or Homo heidelbergensis, a vegetarian titan closer to orangutans.

Let's see some features.

WEIGHT:

An orangutan can weigh up to 120 kg (264.554 lb), and a gorilla (well formed) to 200 (440.924 lb). Gigantopithecus, which exceeded, it almost doubled and tripled. Weigh up to 500 kg (1102.311 lb). Like a bull. Come on, almost 3 times the weight of a giant ape.

HEIGHT:

An orangutan rarely exceed 1.75 meters in height and a gorilla more or less the same. But is that we are seeing great ape reaches 3 feet high. Much more than basketball players higher. (the highest with 2.47 (8 ft) Sultan Kosen weighed 150 kg and had a condition called gigantism)

Other things, according to Wikipedia: It was probably herbivorous quadruped, with a diet similar to the giant panda based on bamboo, possibly supplemented with seasonal fruits.

Among the causes of extinction: competition with giant pandas in the bamboo forests and the arrival of humans, which may also have eaten bamboo and used them to make tools, might have made survival difficult for Gigantopitehcus.
Indeed, some have postulated that cryptozoologists legendary beings across geographies known as Yeti or Bigfoot could be Gigantopithecus varieties that have survived to the present. mmmmmm I do not know

Hyena giant or Pachycrocuta Brevirostris.


Famous is the force that have the jaws of the hyenas that can reach pressures of 350 kg (600lb)and teeth grinding of hard bones and teeth and hooves. Well, now imagine a hyena twice as big, twice as strong and a powerful jaw twice ... this animal there was Pachycrocuta brevirostris.



Pachycrocuta a genus of prehistoric hyenas. The largest specimen, well-documented part of the species of giant hyenas Pachycrocuta brevirostris. With a height of 1 meter (39 in) and weigh up to 120 kg (250 lb).Un similar in size to a small lioness.
This size would make it the largest of the hyenas that have ever lived. He lived from the Middle Pliocene and Middle Pleistocene, about 3 million and 500,000 years ago.
Found fossils in Eurasia and southern and eastern Africa. In dens, caves used as dens.
Scavenger and a predator could be stubborn and tenacious to deer hunting big and small package was probably a hunter of large animals (up to larger deer and occasionally as Megaloceros). The chance of a scavenger is sensed it was a very big animal not built for chasing prey over long distances. In this aspect would have differed from today spotted hyena, which is a more agile animal that, contrary to his image of the documentaries, also kills his own food. Apparently it was ecologically close enough to the smaller (but still important) in relation perrieri Pliocrocuta never found as fossils contemporaries in the same region.

This is a very beautiful reconstruction extracted qi.com

Colossochelys atlas or Testudo atlas


Testudo atlas or Colosoqueli, was the largest turtle. It was, to get a great idea to double that giant tortoises that live today. Reached 2.5 m in length, a height of 1.5 meters and 4 tons.
His legs, like an elephant, were projected on the sides of the body and held the heavy shell of the back. The almoahadillas in the soles of his feet compact distribute the great weight among the five fingers of each leg, with robust claws. It was probably herbivorous and their relatives today. Faced with danger, could get his head and legs in heavy bony armor to protect themselves.
Testudo atlas or Colosoqueli lived in South Asia more than a million years, Pleistocene.

In this video you can see a current Giant Tortoise. It should be intoaccount the Testudo Atlas, could weigh up to more than 15 times its weight.



Curiosity: Although the Testudo atlas or Colosoqueli is the largest turtle that ever lived, not the animal that has existed more shell. This would be the Arquelón 3.7 meters long. This is a sea turtle extinct.

Giant wolf or wolf terrible.


The terrible giant wolf or wolf is a species of extinct large canine that lived in North America during the Pleistocene. Certain features present in this field, suggests that dire wolves, like many other dogs, were social animals who lived and hunted in packs.
Although invited to think what its common name, the giant wolf was not exceptionally large compared with its relative, the common wolf or gray wolf (Canis lupus.) On average, weighed about 80 kg. However, the differences with the other canines, with whom he shared habitat for 90 000 years, are important.
Canis dirus was more robust and proportionally shorter legs, so that it would be a great runner. The nose was long and powerful jaws, thick, strong teeth capable of crushing bones. All this suggests that animals hunted cumbersome, injured or ill, and often feed on carrion. The niche occupied by meadows and steppes in the North American ice age was similar to that hyenas had on other continents. A large number of fossils of herbivores crushed by the jaws of giant wolves reinforce this idea.
Probably became extinct 10 000 years ago, like the rest of the American megafauna.


Some fossil discoveries made in Arkansas indicate that could live in the Ozark Mountains until only 4000 years.

To read more http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canis_dirus

Giant deer or Megaloceros


The Irish elk, Giant deer Megaloceros deer is the largest in history. Like a large deer, his antlers were up to 3.5 m from tip to tip. Although he lived in Europe and much of Asia for half a million years to extinction in recent times, often known as "Irish elk" for the abundant findings of specimens preserved in the peat bogs of Ireland.
The giant deer reached a height of 2.2 m to the cross in the case of males, significantly higher than the largest of the moose. It was a species with strong sexual dimorphism, as females were significantly smaller and slender than the males, in addition to lacking an impressive antlers.
The giant deer grazers were animals that thrived on abundant grass and shrubs in the large, cold plains covering much of Eurasia during the Pleistocene.
Antlers were so large that it required large amounts of calcium and phosphate to form occurring cases of osteoporosis among male Irish elk, so that mortality, already high, increased in bad years.
This fantastic animal became extinct only 7000 years. Were extinguished by changes in the field that were caused by early Neolithic farmers Russian.

Macrauchenia ( Macrauchenia patachonica. )


The Macrauchenia is an extinct mammal with a body of a camel and a short trunk, reaching two and three meters long. (9.8 ft) with 1500 Kg of weight. Dwelt on the plains of South America in the Tertiary and Quaternary disappearing more than 8500 years ago. Despite having long-legged three-toed ungulate is unlikely to run at high speed due in part to the robust frame of body and hind legs that were shorter than the front. Age of herbivorous, eating in areas where I spent most of his time as swamps and grazing, provided him with his prehensile lip boot pastures. Its fur was short, similar to that of a modern horse. He had a trunk like they were today tapirs.
Contact with the men contributed to their extinction, as hunters have taken advantage of its low travel speed to kill and eat.

Giant castor.


The beaver is an extinct giant rodent Castoridae family. It is one of the largest rodents that ever existed, which reached the size of a bear. He lived about 50,000 years ago during the Pleistocene in North America.
He used his teeth to chew tough vegetation and bark, was a good swimmer, but did not build dams. Other types of beaver build dams to protect themselves from predators but in this case was protecting its own gigantic size, were found fossils of giant Castor from Florida (southern U.S.) to northern Canada.
Unlike the current beaver had a wider rear legs relative to its body, making it easier to swim faster.
Other differences are observed in the teeth. The cutting teeth (incisors) of the giant beaver were up to 15 cm long.
Despite their general similarities, the giant beaver and the modern beaver are not close relatives. The giant beaver Castoroides is classified in the genus, while the modern beaver Castor belongs to. There are two species of beaver giant Castoroides Castoroides ohioensis and leiseyorum.

Smilodon


The Smilodon are among the largest felids, the heaviest specimens of this massively built carnivore may have exceeded 400 kg (880 lb).


A Smilodon had a short tail, powerful legs, muscular neck and long canines. Despite being around the same size as a tiger or lion, Smilodon was more robustly built, comparable to a bear.
It shown to scale to demonstrate the compact muscular buildA fully-grown Smilodon weighed approximately 55 to 360 kg (120 to 790 lb), depending on species.



Limbs
Smilodon had relatively shorter and more massive limbs than other felines. It had well developed flexors and extensors in its forepaws,[citation needed] which enabled it to pull down large prey. The back limbs had powerfully built adductor muscles which might have helped the cat's stability when wrestling with prey. Its claws were retractable.



Teeth and jaws

They are the longest canines of the saber-toothed cats at about 28 cm (11 in) long in the largest species Smilodon populator. They were probably built more for stabbing than slashing. Despite being more powerfully built than other large cats, Smilodon actually had a weaker bite. Modern big cats have more pronounced zygomatic arches, while Smilodon had smaller zygomatic arches which restricted the thickness and therefore power of the temporalis muscles, and thus reduced Smilodon’s bite force. Analysis of its narrow jaws indicates that it could produce a bite only a third as strong as that of a lion.There seems to a be a general rule that the saber-toothed cats with the largest canines had proportionally weaker bites. However, analyses of canine bending strength (the ability of the canine teeth to resist bending forces without breaking) and bite forces indicate that saber-toothed cats' teeth were stronger relative to the bite force than those of modern "big cats". In addition, Smilodon could open its jaws 120 degrees, whereas the lion can only open its jaws to 65 degrees.



Smilodon probably preyed on a wide variety of large game including bison, Megatherium, Aurochs, deer, American camels, horses and . As it is known for the saber-toothed cat Homotherium, Smilodon might have killed also juvenile mastodons and mammoths.

Smilodon called sabre-toothed cat or sabre-toothed tiger, is an extinct genus of the subfamily machairodontine saber-toothed cats endemic to North America and South America living from the Early Pleistocene through Lujanian stage of the Pleistocene epoch (1.8 mya—10,000 years ago), existing for approximately 1.790 milion years.

Arctodus simus or giant short-faced bear


Arctodus — known as the short-faced bear or bulldog bear — is an extinct genus of bear consisting of two known fossil species: Arctodus simus and Arctodus pristinus. They were native to North America during the middle to late Pleistocene epoch. It was thought to be carnivorous, though like modern bears, it was probably not above meal of any kind. Its bones were long and thin, and it believed to be able to run up to 50 km/h for short distances. It was large creature, and likely the apex predator of its day and location. Its large size, combined with the natural toughness of bears, meant that it probably preyed upon the North American megafauna.

However, relying on the North American megafauna as its main food source, it disappeared at the same time they did, possibly partly due to competition with humans for the same limited game.

Tremarctos ornatus, the spectacled bear of South America, is the closest living relative of the short-faced bears.

Arctodus simus, also known as the giant short-faced bear, is an extinct species of bear. The genus Arctodus is known as the short-faced or bulldog bears. A. simus is the largest bear, and more generally, the largest mammalian land carnivore within the last 20,000 years. It was native to prehistoric North America from about 800 thousand years ago, and became extinct about 12,500 years ago. It was the largest terrestrial carnivore of its day. The largest mature males would have stood 1.8m (6 ft) at the shoulder (on all fours), 4m (13 ft) upright and an impressive 900kg (2000 lb).


Arctodus simus are a scavenging or necrophagy, they were using its enormous size to intimidate smaller predators such as dire wolves, Smilodon and American lions from their kills.

Elasmotherium and the origen of unicorn


Elasmotherium ("Thin Plate Beast") was a genus of giant rhinoceros which stood, on average, 2.7 metres (8.9 ft) high and 6 metres (20 ft) long, with a single two-meter-long horn in the forehead. The animal may have weighed up to 5 tonnes (5.5 short tons). Its legs were longer than those of other rhinos and were designed for galloping, giving it a horse-like gait. It was probably a fast runner, in spite of its size. Its teeth were similar to those of horses, and it probably grazed low herbs.

The genus appeared during the Late Pliocene in Central Asia, being derived from the genus Sinotherium. E. inexpectatum and E. peii inhabited Eastern China during the Upper Pliocene to Early Pleistocene. They disappeared approximately 1.6 Ma.

Morphological peculiarities of elasmotherians have generated two main hypotheses concerning their appearance and the character of their habitat. The first, most widely accepted view[citation needed] which was also described above, portrays them as large woolly animals with a large forehead horn that thrived on an open steppe. Fossils of the horn, however, have not been found. The other view[citation needed] assigns elasmotherians to riparian biotopes. It is probable that elasmotherians dwelt in both riparian and steppe biotope[citation needed]. The riparian biotope is suggested by dental and skull morphology. The combination of such characteristics as the absence of canines and strongly developed lateral processes of the atlas implies lateral movements of the head, presumably for grasping grass. The hypsodont dentition indicates presence of mineral grains in the food. Such food could be obtained by pulling out dense plants from the moist soil. These conditions are typical for riparian biotopes. On the other hand, a steppe biotope is indicated by their rather long and slender limbs, which would have served well for creatures grazing over vast areas.

It is believed that Elasmotherium died out in prehistoric times. However, according to science writer and cryptozoologist Willy Ley, the animal may have survived long enough to be remembered in the legends of the Evenk people of Russia as a huge black bull with a single horn in the forehead.

There is also a testimony by the medieval traveller Ibn Fadlan which has been interpreted by some[who?] to indicate that Elasmotherium may have survived into historical times.

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