Showing posts with label North America. Show all posts
Showing posts with label North America. Show all posts

Supersaurus.



Supersaurus (SUPER-LIZARD). An ambitious name of a sauropod that could be the greatest who ever lived on Earth. Perhaps some rushed in to put that name ... I mean: The sauropods were the largest dinosaurs that ever lived. Within this group, for example, we find the famous sauropods such as Diplodocus (103 feet long), Argentinosaurus (131 ft) and Amphicoelias fragillimus (up to 155 feet, if its existence is confirmed). So if this sauropod called "SUPER" understand that is bigger than these three ... right? Well the answer is NO, is smaller, measuring up to 100 ft at best, like a Diplodocus.

But, when they found the first fossils seemed that these prehistoric animals could measure some more. Initially estimated 42 meters. And had to give them a name.

Finally, little more can be said of Supersaurus only who like all sauropods, had a small head, a long neck and a long tail. Could weigh 40 tons, and was a vegetarian. Imagine how much they should eat grass.

This prehistoric animal lived in the Jurassic in what is now North America.

The Pentaceratops.



To end this year, 2012, best animal to learn that the prehistoric Pentaceratops. It could be any other, nothing would happen, but this is a little special. Basically, the reason that I consider this animal special, not because I have three horns and call Pentaceratops (5 horns), but because it is the largest land animal with the head of the whole story.

If someone calls you "big head" is because they do not know the Pentaceratops. An animal with a head of up to 3.5 meters (12 ft). A strong neck muscles full of robust bones embedded in supporting a large skull with a bone covered with thorns wheel and 2 meters (7 ft) in diameter. This collar bone was a formidable protector and a dominant male signal.

The Pentaceratops was taller and thinner the triceratops, less heavy, but a little higher. With strong legs, almost 6 tons, as a male African elephant, and 8 meters (26 ft) long. It, like other ceratopsians, was an herbivore and gregarious. With its enormous beak similar to a parrot, tore branches and bark to eat.

The Pentaceratops lived around the Campanian, Late Cretaceous 75 million years ago. Therefore triceratops existed before and not had to face with T.Rex. However, if you had the predator to Daspletosaurus or Acrocanthosaurus.

By the way, we see its curious name: your name means five horns and really have 3 is because it had two great apophysis (build bone) protruding from their cheeks. Views with meat, muscle and skin, these bumps closely resemble the bumps of the warthog.




Acrocanthosaurus



Without quite knowing why, Acrocanthosaurus lived to the public under the shadow of T.Rex, still a great unknown to most and undervalued its role as a hunter at the time of the Cretaceous in North America and Europe.


About the size of T.Rex, the Acrocanthosaurus was a cousin of Allosaurus and, as this was a hunter specializing in large animals, giant sauropods like Diplodocus weighing 6 or 7 times or Pleurocoelus.
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The name of this lizard Acrocanthosaurus means "thorn lizard high" and indeed, when it was discovered, even mistook him for the BIG SPINOSARUS (King of Kings). The theme of the spines always generates controversy and do not become experts agree: if they were to regulate the temperature, if it was to swim, to show your mood, or to house unions with strong muscles ... too numerous to write about this but we'll see another day.

Speaking of muscles, the Acrocanthosaurus was very muscular and strong, much more than others allosaurids. Something like an Allosaurus largest and steroids. It measured 12 meters and weighed 5.6 tons, and this made ​​him a bit slow *. He ran and ran up to the big sauropods (which is not that they were cheetahs) long necks and hooked to these formidable pulling their strong claws and bite with all his weight down, dropping these titanic beasts.

* It was the weight and slow what they did to specialize in hunting large animals, or vice versa, hunting big beasts Acrocanthosaurus led to larger and more robust. Finally, the case is to specialize in this way produced an end. Forms were disappearing with the big sauropods, the Acrocanthosaurus were increasingly less likely to hunt and smaller dams could more easily escape them. His strength was his undoing.




The Platybelodon, an ancestor of the elephant.

The Platybelodon was one of the ancestors that gave rise to modern elephants, though not unique, but so is the strangest appearance.

The Platybelodon was herbivorous, and like the current hippos, spent much time in the swamp water where they feed on aquatic plants. One of the most curious features of this animal from the Miocene was his two bottom teeth shovel-shaped. Two teeth were disproportionately long and wide, however, the teeth (protruding into the mammoths, mastodons and elephants) were small and insignificant.
Another use of these teeth is lower than was to grab the trunk and branches, serrated rubbing against the lower teeth to cut the tree.

Robust and heavy as a small elephant, it can weigh over a ton and a half and could grow to 2 meters high. As I said before, lived during the Miocene, from 15-4 million years, and lived in Africa, Europe, Asia and North America. Although it thrived during his time, did not survive beyond the Miocene. Although no one knows exactly why he died.
In any case, this curious animal, this ancestor of the elephant, the mastodon or mammoth, is an example of the diversity and richness of fauna in prehistoric times.

Bison latifrons

On with huge animals. You've ever been near a bison? Are enormous strengths. His big head and his eyes intimidates let you know that if lash, nothing could be done. The current bison weigh no more than 1,500 kg have a maximum height of 1.80 and about 3 feet long.

But there was an even greater bison, Bison latifrons was called. A huge beast, 2.5 meters high and 5 meters long. And a mass of 2,000 kg and full of strong muscles in the neck that held a big head, only his head was heavier than any of us. Not only that, his head held an antler of more than 2.5 meters long, exceeded in size by counting animals, such as Megaloceros giganteus.

Currently, the family of the largest bovine animal is Bos gaurus that can measure up to 4.60m long and 2.20m high.

The Bison latifrons get other names like giant bison or bison ice age, and who lived during the Pleistocene in North America.


Image Shayne's Photo Journal.

Daeodon. Pig or boar terrible.


Entelodon has long talked of a huge boar, terrible and effective predator. Well, Daeodon was further developments. It was a little larger, reaching 3.6 meters long and 2 meters high. With a head of more than 1 meter in length that had a strong jaw with a bite (similar in proportion to the actual pigs and wild boars) and large and deadly fangs. The neck was short and thick and had a hump on the back along the spine.
With a strong and robust body reached a speed of 35 km / h, and managed to bring down their prey in the form of ambush and was once a short distance faster than performing a surprise attack their prey and bite and squeeze your strong bite.
He lived during the Miocene, about 24 million years ago in North America.

Among the causes of their extinction is thought to be one of the reasons was the gateway to the continent of Bear-dog or Amphicyon. More agile and fast and safely with a structure similar to the wolf pack that offered a performance at top predator.

The famous Bear-dog or Amphicyon


Imagine the world's largest wolf, and now doubling in size, finally give steroids to duplicate the musculature. Throw in claws bigger than a grizzly with a strong legs to run and reach high speeds ... That leaves us? As a predator that existed from the mid-Oligocene and early Miocene. His name was Amphicyon ingens (dog ambiguous) or commonly known as Bear-dog.
This prehistoric beast could be up to three meters and weigh up to 400 kg. Given its size, you might think was not very fast, but do not be fooled, it is thought that hunted their prey in ambush and surprised with a quick career. The smell was due to an as refined as a bloodhound and a fine ear. Type of game similar to the great bears today. He could hunt animals as robust as the old giant sloths or rhinos.

He lived in Europe and Asia and later introduced in North America by the Bering Strait (humans migrated from Asia to the Americas through the strait, possibly taking advantage of a glacial period and the freezing of the Sea) competition in North America other carnivorous even more ... the Daeodon or "terrible pig."

Giant wolf or wolf terrible.


The terrible giant wolf or wolf is a species of extinct large canine that lived in North America during the Pleistocene. Certain features present in this field, suggests that dire wolves, like many other dogs, were social animals who lived and hunted in packs.
Although invited to think what its common name, the giant wolf was not exceptionally large compared with its relative, the common wolf or gray wolf (Canis lupus.) On average, weighed about 80 kg. However, the differences with the other canines, with whom he shared habitat for 90 000 years, are important.
Canis dirus was more robust and proportionally shorter legs, so that it would be a great runner. The nose was long and powerful jaws, thick, strong teeth capable of crushing bones. All this suggests that animals hunted cumbersome, injured or ill, and often feed on carrion. The niche occupied by meadows and steppes in the North American ice age was similar to that hyenas had on other continents. A large number of fossils of herbivores crushed by the jaws of giant wolves reinforce this idea.
Probably became extinct 10 000 years ago, like the rest of the American megafauna.


Some fossil discoveries made in Arkansas indicate that could live in the Ozark Mountains until only 4000 years.

To read more http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canis_dirus

Sauroposeidon, The largest and heaviest dinosaurs of Earth's history


The Sauroposeidon who lived during the Cretaceous, in what is now North America, is the largest known lizard, long and weighing of all land animals throughout the history of the Earth. Hence its name, which means "lizard god of earthquakes."
This vegetarian sauropod is ahead in size and weight above Argentinosaurus, Ultrasauros and other sauropods.
Well, the Sauroposeidon reached 17 meters in height (as a 6-storey building) and weigh up to 60 tons (more than 10 African savannah elephants together) and a length of 35 meters (100 ft).
To give an idea of what was long enough to know that one of his vertebrae could be up to 1.20 meters long (4 ft). And only the neck measuring up to 12 meters (37–39 ft).

This is why it is ranked as the longest dinosaur history.

Ultrasauros.


These amazing animals are among the heaviest dinosaur that ever lived. Although his body resembled that of other sauropods, surpassed in size to most of its peers. It was about 25 times heavier than a giraffe long as three buses and as tall as a six-story building. Its neck and tail, incredibly long, were supported by a backbone like a grill. At the sides of the vertebrae, there were some openings that reduce weight without weakening his back. Most of the weight of its giant dinosaur bore members. Therefore, major bones were the blades, connecting the front legs with the body. The was large and strong, each of them would be higher than a soccer goal. His back was lower than their shoulders, as the hind legs were shorter than the front. When grazing among the plants and bushes, swinging his long neck in all directions. It could reach the juicy leaves of higher tops and low ferns. I needed lots of vegetation, cutting his teeth beveled. For easier digestion, probably swallowed small rocks that were deposited in your belly and helped to turn plants into pulp. Although hard to imagine, experts have suggested that brachiosaurids like this, roamed in herds slowly advancing. Surely the ground shake under their feet. The sheer size of an animal as this dinosaur probably deterred most predators living at the time. But if one is away from the bequest, was exposed to grave danger. On the inside of his legs, like those of elephants, had a sharp claw. With an accurate kick and a flick of its tail flexible, could bring down his enemy. Measuring up to 30 meters long and a little more than 15 high. It lived about 145 million years, at the end of the Jurassic period in North America.

Curious: There is another dinosaur called Ultrsaurus, but not the same, is smaller and fossils found in Asia.

Giant castor.


The beaver is an extinct giant rodent Castoridae family. It is one of the largest rodents that ever existed, which reached the size of a bear. He lived about 50,000 years ago during the Pleistocene in North America.
He used his teeth to chew tough vegetation and bark, was a good swimmer, but did not build dams. Other types of beaver build dams to protect themselves from predators but in this case was protecting its own gigantic size, were found fossils of giant Castor from Florida (southern U.S.) to northern Canada.
Unlike the current beaver had a wider rear legs relative to its body, making it easier to swim faster.
Other differences are observed in the teeth. The cutting teeth (incisors) of the giant beaver were up to 15 cm long.
Despite their general similarities, the giant beaver and the modern beaver are not close relatives. The giant beaver Castoroides is classified in the genus, while the modern beaver Castor belongs to. There are two species of beaver giant Castoroides Castoroides ohioensis and leiseyorum.

Ceratosaurus



The Ceratosaurus had skulls with a structure similar to the dorsal horn on the snout, centrally placed in the nasal cast. They had fused sacral bones (Synsacrum) and the pelvic bones together and held together this structure. A row of small bony nodules or osteoderms were presented under the middle of the back.

The Ceratosaurus could have competed with Allosaurus and Torvosaurus for the same prey (giant sauropods Diplodocus, Apatosaurus and Camarasaurus), but this was smaller by about 6 to 8 meters in length, 2.5 in height, and weighing from 500 kg to 1 tonne would have an ecological niche occupied separately from their larger cousins. Moreover, the Ceratosaurus had a longer body and supple, with a tail shaped like a crocodile. This suggests that was a better swimmer and Torvosaurus Allosaurus. A recent study showed that Robert Bakker Ceratosaurus dams usually hunted waterfowl, such as fish and reptiles, but also had great potential to feed on dinosaurs. The study also indicates that adults and juveniles sometimes ate together. This evidence is, of course, very debatable and Ceratosaurus teeth marks are very common in large dams fossils of dinosaurs on land. Another common theory is that the Ceratosaurus has preyed primarily on Dryosaurus, Camptosaurus, and other ornithopods, since it seems a Lonely Hunter adults unable to break down sauropods. An alternative is that the ceratosaur eat carrion of large bodies of sauropods, displacing small small predators.







Ceratosaurus ("lagarto cornudo") que vivieron a finales del período Jurásico, hace aproximadamente 152 y 145 millones de años, en el Kimeridgiano y el Titoniano, en lo que hoy es Norteamérica, África y posiblemente en Europa.

Iguanodon


This was a robust animal prehistoric herbivore that could switch between bipedal to quadrupedal. The well-known species, I. bernissartensis, it is estimated that weighed about 3 tons on average, and measure about 10 feet long when adult, with some specimens possibly would have reached 13 meters.
The arms were long, up to 75% of the length of the legs with inflexible hands built so that the three central fingers could bear weight.

One of the first details on the iguanodons noticed was that I had reptile herbivore teeth (Iguanodon means "Iguana tooth" as they were of a similar but larger and with a greater destructive capacity) although there was not always consensus on how to eat .

There is no evidence to support a sexual dimorphism, as in hadrosaurs and Ceratopsia.

It is thought that they lived in herds of several dozen individuals as fossils have been found in certain circumstances, several bodies Iguanadon in ancient lakes or rivers, possibly due to the flood of these during migration.

They lived in the early Cretaceous period, makes about 130 to 120 million years (mong the Berriasian and Aptian) in what is now Europe. And in North America.



The scion of thumb is one of the best known features of the iguanodons. Yet it was placed, initially, in the nose by Mantell. When they found the complete copies in Bernissart Dollo realized the mistake and I put in place fingerprint, thumb amended.

Triceratops


Individual Triceratops are estimated to have reached about 7.9 to 9.0 m (26.0–29.5 ft) in length, 2.9 to 3.0 m (9.5–9.8 ft) in height, and 6.1–12.0 tonnes (13,000-26,000 lb) in weight. The most distinctive feature is their large skull, among the largest of all land animals. It could grow to be over 2 m (7 ft) in length, and could reach almost a third of the length of the entire animal. It bore a single horn on the snout, above the nostrils, and a pair of horns approximately 1 m (3 ft) long, with one above each eye. To the rear of the skull was a relatively short, bony frill. Most other ceratopsids had large fenestrae in their frills, while those of Triceratops were noticeably solid.

Triceratops species possessed a sturdy build, with strong limbs and short five-hoofed hands and four-hoofed feet. Although certainly quadrupedal, the posture of these dinosaurs has long been the subject of some debate. Originally, it was believed that the front legs of the animal had to be sprawling at angles from the thorax, in order to better bear the weight of the head.

Triceratops is a genus of herbivorous ceratopsid dinosaur which lived during the late Maastrichtian stage of the Late Cretaceous Period, around 68 to 65 million years ago (mya) in what is now North America.

Diplocaulus


Diplocaulus is an extinct genus of Leponspondyl amphibian who lived in the early Permian period, 270 million years ago. They had a arrow-shaped head, suggesting that this might have served better to swim in the water by moving the water to the sides like a shark or that depredadrores could not swallow. They measured about one meter in length. The first specimen was discovered in 1877 by Edward Cope in Texas called "Bone Wars".
This prehistoric animal ate fish and insects, and lived near water because it was an amphibian and used water as a roast for her eggs.
It looks like the Gerrothorax, sharing certain characteristics suchas this head shape, somewhat more pronounced in the Diplocaulus and eyes in a higher position inthe head.

Hyracotherium

Hyracotherium (beast like a Hyrax), also known as Eohippus, is a genus of mammal Perissodactyla Palaeotheriidae family.

It is considered an ancestor of the horse, rhinoceros and tapir. It is a quadruped animal that lived in the Northern Hemisphere (Asia, Europe and North America) during the Eocene period, makes 60 to 45 million years. The line to the existing horse evolució through the following animals Preistorica: Oligohippus, Merichippus, Pliohippus. In chronological order.



Hyracotherium was a small herbivore the size of a fox, media cross about 35 inches and weighed 6 kg, had four toes on the forefeet and three on hind paws protected, the central one being longer. These animals were already clearly like the horse, despite its small size and probably lived in forests browsing. His teeth were adapted for the consumption of young leaves of the bushes and his eyes were different from modern horses as they were located more to the center of the head preventing a good side vision (which in the modern horse serves as defensive system), Eohippus but did not need because in the jungle environment in which they lived, was more effective camouflage to avoid predators.

Entelodont


The entelodont is an extinct family of hoofed mammals related to the current pig and animals with hooves. Distributed in Asia and North America made between 45 and 25 million years. Measured about 2,1 m (7 feet) high, 3 `5 meters (14 feet)long and had a brain the size of a fist. It fed on carrion, oportunisatas, and plants. Not rule out the flush of live prey. Your lifestyle should look like pigs. Believed to be a omnivore because their teeth had large teeth and powerful back teeth. Like the pigs had a heavy body and short legs and a robust and thin.
With a size similar to Hyaenodon and weighing about 4,207 kg (9,300 lb) was the only rival of Hyaenodon.
For the morphological differences between male and female remains, it is believed that males were competing to win the group severamete females.

Allosaurus.



Allosaurus fragilis had an average length of 8.5 meters (28 ft), with the largest definitive Allosaurus specimen (AMNH 680) estimated at 9.7 meters long (32 ft), and an estimated weight of 2.3 metric tons (2.5 short tons).Allosaurus was a typical large theropod, having a massive skull on a short neck, a long tail and reduced forelimbs. As with dinosaurs in general, weight estimates are debatable, and since 1980 have ranged between 1500 kilograms (3300 lb), 1000 to 4000 kilograms (2200 to 8800 lb), and 1010 kilograms (2230 lb) for modal adult weight (not maximum).

Several gigantic specimens have been attributed to Allosaurus, but may in fact belong to other genera. The closely related genus Saurophaganax (OMNH 1708) reached perhaps 10.9 meters (36 ft) in length, and its single species has sometimes been included in the genus Allosaurus as Allosaurus maximus, though recent studies support it as a separate genus. Another potential specimen of Allosaurus, once assigned to the genus Epanterias (AMNH 5767), may have measured 12.1 meters in length (40 ft). A more recent discovery is a partial skeleton from the Peterson Quarry in Morrison rocks of New Mexico; this large allosaurid may be another individual of Saurophaganx.


Skull

Skull of the Allosaurus fragilis skeleton mounted in the lobby of the San Diego Natural History Museum. The skull and teeth of Allosaurus were modestly proportioned for a theropod of its size. Paleontologist Gregory S. Paul gives a length of 845 millimeters (33.3 in) for a skull belonging to an individual he estimates at 7.9 meters long (26 ft). Each premaxilla (the bones that formed the tip of the snout), held five teeth with D-shaped cross-sections, and each maxilla (the main tooth-bearing bones in the upper jaw) had between fourteen and seventeen teeth; the number of teeth does not exactly correspond to the size of the bone. Each dentary (the tooth-bearing bone of the lower jaw) had between fourteen and seventeen teeth, with an average count of sixteen.

The skull had a pair of horns above and in front of the eyes. These horns were composed of extensions of the lacrimal bones,and varied in shape and size. There were also lower paired ridges running along the top edges of the nasal bones that led into the horns. The horns were probably covered in a keratin sheath and may have had a variety of functions, including acting as sunshades for the eye, being used for display, and being used in combat against other members of the same species (although they were fragile). There was a ridge along the back of the skull roof for muscle attachment, as is also seen in tyrannosaurids.


Allosaurus is a genus of large theropod dinosaur that lived 155 to 145 million years ago, in the late Jurassic period (Kimmeridgian to Tithonian). The name Allosaurus means "different lizard" and is derived from the Greek αλλος/allos ("different, strange") and σαυρος/sauros ("lizard"). The first remains that can definitely be ascribed to this genus were described in 1877 by Othniel Charles Marsh. As one of the first well-known theropod dinosaurs, it has long attracted attention outside of paleontological circles, and has been a lead dinosaur in several films and documentaries.

Allosaurus was a large bipedal predator with a large skull, equipped with dozens of large, sharp teeth. The preys of the Allosaurus were the Diplodocus or Stegosaurus.

Miacis


Miacis is an extinct that appeared in the late Paleocene (ca. 60-55 million years ago) and are mammals of the family Miacidae. They are representative of the group of early carnivores that were the ancestors of the modern Order Carnivora, although only the species Miacis cognitus is a true carnivoran. Thus, Miacis may be considered the genus of carnivorous mammals that gave rise to all modern Carnivora (dogs and cats).

Miacis was about the size of a weasel (~30 cm), and lived on the North American and European continents. They retained some of the primitive characteristics that were present in the Creodonts, the sister order of Carnivora, such as low skulls, long slender bodies, long tails, and short legs. It retained the same number of teeth, 44, although some reductions in this number were apparently in progress and some of the teeth were reduced in size.

The hind limbs were longer than the forelimbs, the pelvis was very doglike in form and structure, and some specialized traits were present in the vertebrae. It had retractable claws, agile joints for climbing, and binocular vision. Miacis and related forms had brains that were relatively larger than those of the creodonts, and the increase in brain size as compared with body size probably reflects an increase in intelligence.

Like many other early carnivorans, it was well suited for an arboreal climbing lifestyle with needle sharp claws, and had limbs and joints that resemble those of modern carnivorans. Miacis was probably a very agile forest dweller that preyed upon smaller animals, such as small mammals, reptiles, and birds, and might have also have eaten eggs and fruits.

Smilodon


The Smilodon are among the largest felids, the heaviest specimens of this massively built carnivore may have exceeded 400 kg (880 lb).


A Smilodon had a short tail, powerful legs, muscular neck and long canines. Despite being around the same size as a tiger or lion, Smilodon was more robustly built, comparable to a bear.
It shown to scale to demonstrate the compact muscular buildA fully-grown Smilodon weighed approximately 55 to 360 kg (120 to 790 lb), depending on species.



Limbs
Smilodon had relatively shorter and more massive limbs than other felines. It had well developed flexors and extensors in its forepaws,[citation needed] which enabled it to pull down large prey. The back limbs had powerfully built adductor muscles which might have helped the cat's stability when wrestling with prey. Its claws were retractable.



Teeth and jaws

They are the longest canines of the saber-toothed cats at about 28 cm (11 in) long in the largest species Smilodon populator. They were probably built more for stabbing than slashing. Despite being more powerfully built than other large cats, Smilodon actually had a weaker bite. Modern big cats have more pronounced zygomatic arches, while Smilodon had smaller zygomatic arches which restricted the thickness and therefore power of the temporalis muscles, and thus reduced Smilodon’s bite force. Analysis of its narrow jaws indicates that it could produce a bite only a third as strong as that of a lion.There seems to a be a general rule that the saber-toothed cats with the largest canines had proportionally weaker bites. However, analyses of canine bending strength (the ability of the canine teeth to resist bending forces without breaking) and bite forces indicate that saber-toothed cats' teeth were stronger relative to the bite force than those of modern "big cats". In addition, Smilodon could open its jaws 120 degrees, whereas the lion can only open its jaws to 65 degrees.



Smilodon probably preyed on a wide variety of large game including bison, Megatherium, Aurochs, deer, American camels, horses and . As it is known for the saber-toothed cat Homotherium, Smilodon might have killed also juvenile mastodons and mammoths.

Smilodon called sabre-toothed cat or sabre-toothed tiger, is an extinct genus of the subfamily machairodontine saber-toothed cats endemic to North America and South America living from the Early Pleistocene through Lujanian stage of the Pleistocene epoch (1.8 mya—10,000 years ago), existing for approximately 1.790 milion years.
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