Showing posts with label Miocene. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Miocene. Show all posts

THALASSOCNUS, A SLOTH ACUATIC


The most famous of the Sloths, we all know more or less, is the Megatherium. A ground sloth sturdy-looking, with more than 3000 kg (6.600 lb) . But there is another Sloths, thalassocnus, which has the peculiarity of being prehistoric and water.


The thalassocnus moved slowly and peaceful, sometimes snorkelling hunting dangerous algae and mosses with bladed teeth.

Like the Megatherium, the thalassocnus also had big, strong arms, but not to grab the branches of trees, but to cling to the seafloor, holding well to the underwater rocks while feeding.

This Sloths was not as big or heavy as its cousin the prehistoric ground sloth, in fact, could be bigger for being aquatic as it can better withstand the weight ... but no. The thalassocnus could measure about 2 meters long (40 ft.), and weighs 120 kg (264 lb.). Sometimes he could leave the water and feed on land plants, but not a large as its cousin, it could easily fall prey to predators such as Sparassodonta or Amphicyon.

Anyway, you do not think that it is rare to see a sloth in the water. Sometimes, amazon overflows, and the only way to move from tree to tree is swimming. Here you can see a sloths, swimming ... it does very well.


It existed between the Miocene and Pliocene (between 25,000 and 2.5 million years ago) in what is now known as South America.

Aphelops



This is probably the last prehistoric animal of which I write until I get back from vacation, however, I mustered all my strength (which are already few when you look approaching the holidays) and have compiled enough information to get an idea of ​​this creature surprising. The name of this animal is to Aphelops Mutilus.

What does your name?

How ever we have seen, the name that experts give some prehistoric animals are simple, then put them in Latin or Greek, and it looks like something out of a more sensible work all palontólogo scholar and scientist. Nooooo, I do not mean this ... Mutilus, which is mutilated, and Greek + Ops aphelēs soft face. If we put all of this creature's name can be translated as the soft face mutilated. Actually, this name refers to the impression given paleontologists who discovered its remains for the first time. Found a rhinoceros, huge, which was lacking something, I had no horn ... hence the name soft mutilated face ... and how was it?

Well, as I said, it was a rhinoceros, an ancestor of the white rhino and black, but also the woolly rhinoceros. Easily exceeded 4.2 meters long (14 ft.) and was close to 3 meters tall (9 ft,). They were immense.

A large male white rhino can exceed 3,000 kg (6.600 lb), but easily surpassed Aphelops 4 tons (8.800 lb). Its constitution was robust, the larger body and smaller legs. Looked more like a hippo rhino.

Petite legs, big, round and with a huge rib cage body, without much hump like a rhinoceros. In fact, after analyzing the skeleton and teeth, experts concluded that the Aphelops Mutilus spent much of their time in the water, as hiccups live. Once out, he would be helpless, despite its large size, face formidable predators as Hyaenodon or Entelodon (or giant boar). If only I had a horn to defend ...

This large herbivore existed in the Miocene, between 20 and 5 million behind in what is now North America. Besides Aphelops Mutilus have been classified two species: Aphelops malacorhinus and Aphelops megalodus.

Epicyon.



Actually, the largest and heaviest wolves may be found in cold northern areas of America and Asia, including Canada and Alaska and the Russian steppes. Normally, these wolves do not exceed 80 kg (176 lb), when they do it is because we are talking about huge wolves, strong, sturdy and large and possibly have been bred in captivity. However, the size of these big wolves is nothing to what I could weigh the Epicyon. A prehistoric wolf stood at 170 (360 lb)kg.

Their name, Epicyon, means literally "more than a dog". And it really is bigger than a dog, from snout to tail could exceed 2.5 meters (9 ft.)(which dog measure that?). In addition, the Epicyon was part of the subfamily of Borophaginae, a group of ancient canids whose name means "bone crushing dogs", in reference to its strong and resistant teeth can crush the bones of its prey. Something like the teeth of hyenas ... when they had not yet appeared on earth. To get an idea, it has been observed that a wolf has a bite pressure of 270 kg  (590 lb) as much as Epicyon morphology, this was over 600 kg (1322 lb)... we just got to the 80 (176 lb) kg of pressure.


It is thought that these prehistoric animals lived and hunted in packs ... thus achieving a great success in their survival. Stalked and hunted with its teeth large and small prey such as (antique mammoths, deer and the Synthetoceras or calicotéridos). The success of their survival was such that the Epicyon lived thousands of years, millions of years. Exactly 15 million years is one of the top predators. Virtually the entire Miocene Epicyon lived as it appeared 25 million years ago and disappeared for 5 ..... an eternity compared to the survival of the species homo sapiens.


Dinocrocuta



Well okay, I know that lately I talk a lot of hyenas, if the giant hyena or brevirostris, if Chasmaporthetes including I talk about the evolution LINK. But the animal from which I will talk today is not exactly a hyena, but almost almost (is in the same sub).Let's talk Dinocrocuta, which literally translated for me, means "Hyena terrible."

If the spotted hyena is an animal bite with a power far superior to that of other carnivores of the same size, Dinocrocuta, had a bite even higher. No broken bones, triturated like a herbivore grinds the beans and branches. You just have to take a look at his skull.




The skull was tremendous, huge, note that the strong mandibles look like an elephant but with fangs that look like projectiles. If you have that jaw so wide is to hold the attachments of muscles breakers incredibly powerful and if you have those huge fangs was to withstand the great pressure exerted by the jaws. Possibly one of the largest land mammals with bite force of all time, rather than the Megistotherium, the Androwsarcus and equating to Daeodon or pork terrible.


But this skull to hold the neck and body should be titanic. It is estimated that weighed up to 400 kg (1200 lb). Maybe that will not say anything, but keep in mind that the hyena does not exceed 90kg now, and the lions of Africa, do not exceed 300 kg (900 lb). It is true that during the Miocene, there were other large predators and large herbivores that had fed. And the best thing to have an idea, it's back to the comparisons:

Lion, Dinocrocuta, Cave Lion and  Cave Bear.

As shown in the picture, the skull of Dinocrocuta is almost as big as the cave lion and almost the same as the Cave Bear ... but if you look properly on, will see that the bones are more robust. This means that it was perhaps a top predator of its time.

As I said, the Dinocrocuta lived in the late Miocene in Africa, Asia and Europe. And actively hunted large animals, herbivores and carnivores. Animals like the woolly rhinoceros (which bones have been found with tooth marks posilizados of Dinocrocuta cured, so it is given an active role in not only hunting and predator) the Paraceratherium, the Platybelodon, Calicoterios Anisonodon and even the great mammoth.

Chasmaporthetes



This prehistoric animal is an animal very curious. Due to the different characteristics was an animal uncommon, and is called Chasmaporthetes, although not really a distinct species, it really is the family of a peculiar group of hyenas. Chasmaporthetes size is about 1 meter (3,3 ft) tall at the withers and an average of 80 kg (170 lbs). To get an idea, would be as large as the spotted hyenas that appear in documentaries in Africa but, more graceful, slightly taller and less robust.

The two main features of this hyena are:


First, their teeth. The Hyaenidae are characterized by a modified dentition for intervention on the hard tissues of the mammalian skeleton, and this is because most species are scavengers. However, representatives of the genre were primarily hunters Chasmaporthetes. I remember talking about the kind of prehistoric hyena Pachycrocuta (giant hyena), had a bite so powerful, so strong teeth and was so great that I could grind up the bones of elephants, LINK.

But back to what we want. When the experts found the jaw of Chasmaporthetes began to think that this species were mostly carrion, but rather active predators. To understand the difference, we could say that their molar teeth were made to cut, and not crushed. Something like the current cats, they are better equipped to hunt than to live on carrion.

The idea that predators were reinforced when analyzing its skeleton, found that their physiology was specialized in speed. Experts think that the Chasmaporthetes could reach up to 100 km / h (64 mll/h) and had to compete with the giant cheetah Acinonyx pardinensis of the time. Her long legs and slender body adapted to the speed, gave him a look that is classified in the group of hyena-like dogs ... talk about it another day.


Secondly, its distribution. We are accustomed to seeing the hyenas in Africa or South Asia and is easy to think that we in the east half and the Strait of Gibraltar, the hyenas could colonize Asia and Europe. For example, in Europe was the spice Chasmaporthetes lunensis. Well, another species, called Chasmaporthetes australis was the only species of hyena that through the Bering Strait colonized all of North America. This may not tell you much but it was this species, the swift hunter hyena, hyena more common around the world and of all time (although it is hardly known today). Lived parts of the world more than any other hyena, whether extinct or still alive.

Chasmaporthetes is a genus that lived in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America about 15 million years ago during the Miocene. In short, a sort of prehistoric animal that I thought you would like to know if you love animals, prehistoric or not.

Rhamphosuchus crassidens.


Today we will talk of the largest crocodile that ever lived. More than the Sarcosuchus Imperator and the Deinosuchus, which are of similar size (15 meters) and weighs about the same (9 tons) ... dimensions not insignificant by comparison with the currently largest crocodile, the marine crocodile weighs 1.5 tonnes  and 6 meters long.



The name of this giant prehistoric crocodile is Rhamphosuchus crassidens, "crocodile-peak". Rhamphosuchus crassidens is the largest species of a genus of which we speak: gender Rhamphosuchus and is an extinct relative of the False gharial, a crocodile of the family Crocodylidae  with a thin elongated snout. Although the False gharial is 4 meters and weighs 250 kg, whereas the Rhamphosuchus crassidens is 18 meters long (although other estimates do not exceed 15 m) and 1 tons. An aquatic animal although very heavy to move nimbly on land, in ponds and marshes became the superpredator of water during the Miocene Epoch in the Indian continent.



Due to the size, strength and width but also elongated snout, the Rhamphosuchus crassidens could devour prey larger and more varied than today's crocodiles Tomistominae subfamily (such as the False gharial). The variety and development of the Miocene ungulates were a valuable contribution to the diet of this prehistoric animal. Among their prey could find elephants, antelopes, deer-like animals, giant pigs, horses with huge claws, camels, rhinos, crocodiles and even other great apes and the orangutan or an ancestor of ours: the great and strong Gigantopithecus. All the animals who came to drink. Possibly, their diet was changing as he grew older, because while their size increased so did his jaw and of course his power and, at first had to settle mainly fish and small vertebrates. Even then devoured everything that breathed.

Mammuthus creticus. The dwarf mammoth.


 When you tell a woman that looks like a mammoth, she'll think you're saying fat, at least. But if you tell a man, surely he will think you are calling strong and big ... and perhaps hairy. But that's not true, not all mammoths were large and strong and hairy. We saw that some mammoths reached 5 meters in height and 9 long and weighed 12 tons. We referred to the largest species, the Sungari mammoth ("Mammoth Songhua River"). But like I said, there are different species. Possibly the smallest species of the order of the Proboscidea (Mammoth) is the Mammuthus creticus which as its name suggests, lived on the island of Crete.
Lived 3.5 million years ago on the island. And "If you could rebuild, it would be like a baby elephant, but stouter, with thicker members and look chubby. Would have had a lock of adult tusks," Herridge said in a statement from the Natural History Museum in London.

Not exceed one meter high, and basically be like an adult but about 5 times smaller and lighter, and less hairy.
Apparently, size dwarf was a response to the lack of resources of the islands, because apart from Crete remains have been found in other Mediterranean islands.

Another adaptation to the climatic characteristics of the Mediterranean islands, was the removal of the protective layer of hair. It had hair like his predecessors. Keep in mind that the climate of this island is quite pleasant and seldom falls below zero.

The colonization of the Mediterranean islands occurred in successive drainage schemes in the Mediterranean, up to 10 times in the last 6 million years, or lowered sea level, which facilitated the passage between them and the European continent.




Paraceratherium



You're going to learn today that was the largest mammal known throughout history: the Paraceratherium or "near horned".

It is larger and heavier than mammoth or mastodon, larger than the Anisodon or the Giant Sloth.

WANT DETAILS?


 ESPECIES 
 MAMUT 
 MASTODONTE 
 ANISODON 
 MEGATERIO 
 PARACERATERIO 
HEIGHT  5,5 METERS  4 METERS  3 METERS  6 METERS  7 METERS
WT  10 TONS  6 TONS 3 TONS 7 TONS  15 TONS
LONG  9 METERS (con trompa) 5 METERS 3,5 METERS  6 METERS  8 METERS

Well, the Paraceratherium is a cousin of present rhino, and like this, was an herbivore, but not grazed. Its large size enabled him to eat the leaves of the tallest trees. As in the case of current rhino, his eyesight was not as developed as smell, in fact, your nasal passages were larger than its brain. That's this brainiac size (relative to its body) that is thought to not maintain complex social relationships as African elephants today. 

Large, heavy, and with a body that produces much heat, hairless skin and like the white rhino. His legs were strong and it is thought that through these, they could defend themselves from predators. The animals of this kind appeared in Central Asia during the first half of the Oligocene period, approximately thirty million years, and became extinct in the mid-Miocene period, 16.6 million years ago.




Rhamphosuchus

For months we talk about one of the largest crocodiles in the history and prehistory together. We refer to Deinosuchus, a crocodile measuring between 12 (40 ft) and 15 meters long (50 ft), which lived in the Cretaceous dinosaurs that hunted among other prey.

The crocodile you today is possibly the largest crocodile ever. A crocodile with a size that could grow to 18 meters(58 ft). (Opinions vary on the size, some experts say that half to 18 meters and 15 ... in any case would be one of the largest crocodiles.) Called Rhamphosuchus and like other crocodiles, current and extinct expected lurking in the river banks until prey came to drink and then ... zas!. A deadly bite, a fatal bite when caught their prey would not let go until he stopped breathing.

Among their prey might have found a Platybelodon, an ancestor of the elephant, and even a hominid Anisodon ancestor of ours as Gigantopithecus, the largest single story.


A Platybelodon, an ancestor of the elephant, 2 meters (7 ft) high and over 2 tons that even with its enormous weight and strength, could do nothing against this 10-ton crocodile, a mouth of almost 2 meters, 18 meters and one of the Bites more pressure throughout the animal kingdom (almost nothing).

Come on, all animals are herbivores or carnivores, prey or hunter, trembling at the close presence of this great monster, this large predator.

The Platybelodon, an ancestor of the elephant.

The Platybelodon was one of the ancestors that gave rise to modern elephants, though not unique, but so is the strangest appearance.

The Platybelodon was herbivorous, and like the current hippos, spent much time in the swamp water where they feed on aquatic plants. One of the most curious features of this animal from the Miocene was his two bottom teeth shovel-shaped. Two teeth were disproportionately long and wide, however, the teeth (protruding into the mammoths, mastodons and elephants) were small and insignificant.
Another use of these teeth is lower than was to grab the trunk and branches, serrated rubbing against the lower teeth to cut the tree.

Robust and heavy as a small elephant, it can weigh over a ton and a half and could grow to 2 meters high. As I said before, lived during the Miocene, from 15-4 million years, and lived in Africa, Europe, Asia and North America. Although it thrived during his time, did not survive beyond the Miocene. Although no one knows exactly why he died.
In any case, this curious animal, this ancestor of the elephant, the mastodon or mammoth, is an example of the diversity and richness of fauna in prehistoric times.

Megistotherium


The Andrewsarchus or Androsarcus, was considered the largest carnivorous mammal history, but that position was occupied not alone. Along with this there is another giant carnivorous mammal, called Megistotherium (and some experts say it could even be larger than the Andrewsarchus). The Megistotherium was a terrible predator, a predator who struck fear Miocene to the titanic mastodons (found fossilized bones of mastodons with Megistotherium marks indicating that hunting for food).
The Megistotherium belonged to the family of Hyaenodontidae, a family of large predators, strong, aggressive and courageous. Predators that were in the top of the food chain before the mega saber-toothed cats like, or the greatest, the cave lion.
The Megistotherium lived in what is now Europe, Africa and Asia. As large as the current bison, weigh up to 1500 kg (3300 lb) and a height to the shoulders of more than 1.5 meters long and 3.5 (a white bear almost never reaches 1000 kg (2200 lb) and is 2.5 meters long). The dimensions of the skull were Megistotherium up to 1 meter long (similar to Androsarcus) and his jaw with a force of enormous pressure, harbored very powerful teeth can grind the hardest parts of prey such as bones or hooves. Do not forget that the family is synonymous Hyaenodontidae hyena's tooth, and these (the hyenas) are known for the strength of their jaws and teeth trituratodo. To get an idea, your name, Megistotherium, means "the biggest beast crushed bones."

Anisodon. Chalicotheriidae.


The Anisodon belongs to the family or Calicoterios Calicotéridos (Chalicotheriidae). It is very curious, strange to our eyes. The truth is that we look like a cross between two animals: a horse and a gorilla (for example).

In fact, although the head and body were similar to those of the horse, walking in a more upright, similar the gorilla and not as current horses. Its front legs were long and short the back, so I walked in a manner more similar to gorillas than horses. But the resemblance to the gorillas are not only the way to go, also had no claws, but claws and knuckles rested on them. In the front legs were huge, curved claws, probably used to get the leaves on the trees as they were browsing on forest and verifications may be standing on its hind legs to reach higher branches. They could not run, and it was his claws and great strength and size that can be served as a defense against predators. On its hind legs could reach more than 4 meters high.



Some cryptozoologists have hypothesised that (the supposedly carnivorous) cryptid from Africa, the Nandi Bear, could be a chalicothere.

Appeared in the Miocene and as mentioned in Wiki, possibly survived until "a few years. "

Kelenken guillermoi.

Some time ago we spoke of wallerian Titanis, the second largest bird of the subfamily Phorusrhacidae, or better known as terror birds. It should be noted that in the Subfamily Brontornithinae Terror Birds are heavier and bigger as the bird Brontornis.


Phorusrhacidae and Brontornithinae are subfamilies of the family of Phorusrhacids.Anyway, on with the Kelenken.

The largest bird is the Kelenken guillermoi. He lived in South America 15 million years ago (Miocene), recall that lived in North America wallerian Titanis for 5. And he could measure up to 2.5 meters tall and weigh about 160 kg elenken was quick and could hunt and devour rodents, reptiles and small mammals.

It is the largest known predatory bird in history. And not just any predator was in the top of the food chain, and could face other super-predator of the time.


Two features of Kelenken guillermoi my attention:

1 - The size of the head: This came to be more than 70 cm long, with the bird known as the largest skull. Imagine a large ostrich, but with a pointed beak and hook and 7 times larger. All supported by a robust and strong neck.



-


2 - The second thing that strikes me is the speed: I could outrun an ostrich. The ostrich is known for the speed provided by its two strong legs, reaching up to 65 km / h. The Kelenken guillermoi being young could reach 100 km / h. Come on, that may strike a galloping horse without difficulty.


Daeodon. Pig or boar terrible.


Entelodon has long talked of a huge boar, terrible and effective predator. Well, Daeodon was further developments. It was a little larger, reaching 3.6 meters long and 2 meters high. With a head of more than 1 meter in length that had a strong jaw with a bite (similar in proportion to the actual pigs and wild boars) and large and deadly fangs. The neck was short and thick and had a hump on the back along the spine.
With a strong and robust body reached a speed of 35 km / h, and managed to bring down their prey in the form of ambush and was once a short distance faster than performing a surprise attack their prey and bite and squeeze your strong bite.
He lived during the Miocene, about 24 million years ago in North America.

Among the causes of their extinction is thought to be one of the reasons was the gateway to the continent of Bear-dog or Amphicyon. More agile and fast and safely with a structure similar to the wolf pack that offered a performance at top predator.

The famous Bear-dog or Amphicyon


Imagine the world's largest wolf, and now doubling in size, finally give steroids to duplicate the musculature. Throw in claws bigger than a grizzly with a strong legs to run and reach high speeds ... That leaves us? As a predator that existed from the mid-Oligocene and early Miocene. His name was Amphicyon ingens (dog ambiguous) or commonly known as Bear-dog.
This prehistoric beast could be up to three meters and weigh up to 400 kg. Given its size, you might think was not very fast, but do not be fooled, it is thought that hunted their prey in ambush and surprised with a quick career. The smell was due to an as refined as a bloodhound and a fine ear. Type of game similar to the great bears today. He could hunt animals as robust as the old giant sloths or rhinos.

He lived in Europe and Asia and later introduced in North America by the Bering Strait (humans migrated from Asia to the Americas through the strait, possibly taking advantage of a glacial period and the freezing of the Sea) competition in North America other carnivorous even more ... the Daeodon or "terrible pig."

Argentavis magnificens is the largest flying bird ever discovered.


This bird, sometimes called the Giant Teratorn, is an extinct species known (as of 2006) from three sites from the late Miocene (6 million years before present) of central and northwestern Argentina, where a good sample of fossils has been obtained.[1]

The humerus (upper arm bone) of Argentavis is somewhat damaged. It allows a fairly accurate estimate of its length in life, which was a bit shorter than an entire human arm.[2] The species apparently had stout, strong legs and large feet which enabled it to walk with ease. The bill was large, rather slender, had a hooked tip with a wide gape.

Currently accepted estimates:

Wingspan: 5.8–8 m (19 – 26 ft)
Wing area: nearly 7 m² (75 square ft)
Wing loading: c. 11.5 kg/m²
Length: 3.5 m (11.5 ft)
Height: 1.7–2 m (5.6–6.5 ft)
Weight: 60–80 kg (140–180 lb)
For comparison, the living bird with the largest wingspan is the Wandering Albatross (3.63 m). Since A. magnificens is known to have been a land bird, another good point of comparison is the Andean Condor, which is not too distantly related to Argentavis. This bird is among the largest land birds, with a wingspan of about 3 m and weighing up to 12 kg.

The ability to fly is not a simple question of weight, except in extreme cases. Size and structure of the wing must also be taken into account. As a rule of thumb, a wing loading of 25 kg/m² is considered the limit for avian flight.[3]



The heaviest extant flying bird is not heavier than 20 kg (there are several contenders, among which are the European Great Bustard and the African Kori Bustard). The Sarus Crane is the tallest flying bird alive, standing nearly as high as Argentavis due to its long legs.

The largest known flying creatures are a group of pterosaurs named azhdarchids, extinct flying animals that existed during the age of the dinosaurs and died out at the end of the Cretaceous. Estimations of the wingspan of the largest species like Quetzalcoatlus and Hatzegopteryx exceeds 10 m, with less conservative estimates being 12 m or more.
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