Showing posts with label Mammoths. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Mammoths. Show all posts

Mammuthus creticus. The dwarf mammoth.


 When you tell a woman that looks like a mammoth, she'll think you're saying fat, at least. But if you tell a man, surely he will think you are calling strong and big ... and perhaps hairy. But that's not true, not all mammoths were large and strong and hairy. We saw that some mammoths reached 5 meters in height and 9 long and weighed 12 tons. We referred to the largest species, the Sungari mammoth ("Mammoth Songhua River"). But like I said, there are different species. Possibly the smallest species of the order of the Proboscidea (Mammoth) is the Mammuthus creticus which as its name suggests, lived on the island of Crete.
Lived 3.5 million years ago on the island. And "If you could rebuild, it would be like a baby elephant, but stouter, with thicker members and look chubby. Would have had a lock of adult tusks," Herridge said in a statement from the Natural History Museum in London.

Not exceed one meter high, and basically be like an adult but about 5 times smaller and lighter, and less hairy.
Apparently, size dwarf was a response to the lack of resources of the islands, because apart from Crete remains have been found in other Mediterranean islands.

Another adaptation to the climatic characteristics of the Mediterranean islands, was the removal of the protective layer of hair. It had hair like his predecessors. Keep in mind that the climate of this island is quite pleasant and seldom falls below zero.

The colonization of the Mediterranean islands occurred in successive drainage schemes in the Mediterranean, up to 10 times in the last 6 million years, or lowered sea level, which facilitated the passage between them and the European continent.




Smilodon


The Smilodon are among the largest felids, the heaviest specimens of this massively built carnivore may have exceeded 400 kg (880 lb).


A Smilodon had a short tail, powerful legs, muscular neck and long canines. Despite being around the same size as a tiger or lion, Smilodon was more robustly built, comparable to a bear.
It shown to scale to demonstrate the compact muscular buildA fully-grown Smilodon weighed approximately 55 to 360 kg (120 to 790 lb), depending on species.



Limbs
Smilodon had relatively shorter and more massive limbs than other felines. It had well developed flexors and extensors in its forepaws,[citation needed] which enabled it to pull down large prey. The back limbs had powerfully built adductor muscles which might have helped the cat's stability when wrestling with prey. Its claws were retractable.



Teeth and jaws

They are the longest canines of the saber-toothed cats at about 28 cm (11 in) long in the largest species Smilodon populator. They were probably built more for stabbing than slashing. Despite being more powerfully built than other large cats, Smilodon actually had a weaker bite. Modern big cats have more pronounced zygomatic arches, while Smilodon had smaller zygomatic arches which restricted the thickness and therefore power of the temporalis muscles, and thus reduced Smilodon’s bite force. Analysis of its narrow jaws indicates that it could produce a bite only a third as strong as that of a lion.There seems to a be a general rule that the saber-toothed cats with the largest canines had proportionally weaker bites. However, analyses of canine bending strength (the ability of the canine teeth to resist bending forces without breaking) and bite forces indicate that saber-toothed cats' teeth were stronger relative to the bite force than those of modern "big cats". In addition, Smilodon could open its jaws 120 degrees, whereas the lion can only open its jaws to 65 degrees.



Smilodon probably preyed on a wide variety of large game including bison, Megatherium, Aurochs, deer, American camels, horses and . As it is known for the saber-toothed cat Homotherium, Smilodon might have killed also juvenile mastodons and mammoths.

Smilodon called sabre-toothed cat or sabre-toothed tiger, is an extinct genus of the subfamily machairodontine saber-toothed cats endemic to North America and South America living from the Early Pleistocene through Lujanian stage of the Pleistocene epoch (1.8 mya—10,000 years ago), existing for approximately 1.790 milion years.
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