Showing posts with label Europe.. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Europe.. Show all posts

Rhamphorhynchus







What would you think if you walking down a lonely street, hear a deafening roar, a wrenching and inhuman scream and scared to lift the head, could see the creature we see up above.

The options are many:


  • Some mad scientist has mixed the DNA of various beings and created this abomination. 
  • You are hallucinating and think that mixing alcohol with sleeping pills are not a good idea. 
  • Or, the most likely option. It has breached spacetime that has joined your space-time now with the space-time Earth 150,000 years ago. Facilitating the passage of this prehistoric be watching you from the roof.



Because that's the most likely possibility, I see the urgency of what this should you ever be wrong with you. 

This prehistoric flying animal called Rhamphorhynchus, translated into our language, would mean lizard "Muzzle Duck". 



The Rhamphorhynchus was one of the first pterosaurs and its features that distinguish it from other pterosaurs, we highlight its longer than normal tail. Of course, his mouth is also very peculiar. The duck-shaped, flat and wide mouth (though with long, spiny teeth) would be a good tool for catching fish. There are experts who claim that they were not so specialized, and their diet was more varied.

The other important difference from most modern pterosaurs is that the crest did not Rhamphorhynchus neither bone nor cartilage or anything. I had no intention to leave it. 
Stands and this flying lizard reach up to our chest and wing span was almost 2 meters. 
He lived in what is now Europe and Africa in the Jurassic.

Gastonia.


Family of ankilosauridae (which are protected under bony armor, armored lizard literally), we can point the Gastonia burgei. A herbivorous whose most notable physical feature was its enormous armor protecting the back of the body and neck and serves as an indication to know your storyline. An armature, a row of spines and bumps that made ​​it impossible to sink your teeth predators. Besides working in packs, and facing a predator joined rows forming impassable reminds African buffalo versus lions.

The characteristics of the excavation where the fossilized bones were found, no one knows exactly the number of spines possessed. Is known is that some reach 50 cm (1,7 ft) in length, therefore, predators should be very careful not to bump into these horns if they did not to lose an eye, or were nailed to the heart or lungs.


In fact, its only weakness was the belly, for that, the predator must rotate in order to reach an area unprotected. Something that is very difficult because the Gatonia was an animal with a very low center of gravity and weighing more than 1000 kg (2204 lb). Length up to 5 meters (7 ft) long, with a tail of 2 meters which it used as a whip and a simple swipe of the tail, was able to knock down a predator.

Found between predators to Utahraptor, which by name and intuit that was in Utah, in the United States. And the Gastonia lived mainly in what is today North America and Europe during the Cretaceous period, about 125 million years ago.



A curiosity about Gastonia. Phylogenetic by this prehistoric animal is the Ornithischia. This animal, known for their muscles, strength and be massive and heavy, shares a similar bird hip, which means bird and ornitheos ischion by hip. But this similarity does not mean anything, is only superficial because birds are from the order Saurischia

Dinocrocuta



Well okay, I know that lately I talk a lot of hyenas, if the giant hyena or brevirostris, if Chasmaporthetes including I talk about the evolution LINK. But the animal from which I will talk today is not exactly a hyena, but almost almost (is in the same sub).Let's talk Dinocrocuta, which literally translated for me, means "Hyena terrible."

If the spotted hyena is an animal bite with a power far superior to that of other carnivores of the same size, Dinocrocuta, had a bite even higher. No broken bones, triturated like a herbivore grinds the beans and branches. You just have to take a look at his skull.




The skull was tremendous, huge, note that the strong mandibles look like an elephant but with fangs that look like projectiles. If you have that jaw so wide is to hold the attachments of muscles breakers incredibly powerful and if you have those huge fangs was to withstand the great pressure exerted by the jaws. Possibly one of the largest land mammals with bite force of all time, rather than the Megistotherium, the Androwsarcus and equating to Daeodon or pork terrible.


But this skull to hold the neck and body should be titanic. It is estimated that weighed up to 400 kg (1200 lb). Maybe that will not say anything, but keep in mind that the hyena does not exceed 90kg now, and the lions of Africa, do not exceed 300 kg (900 lb). It is true that during the Miocene, there were other large predators and large herbivores that had fed. And the best thing to have an idea, it's back to the comparisons:

Lion, Dinocrocuta, Cave Lion and  Cave Bear.

As shown in the picture, the skull of Dinocrocuta is almost as big as the cave lion and almost the same as the Cave Bear ... but if you look properly on, will see that the bones are more robust. This means that it was perhaps a top predator of its time.

As I said, the Dinocrocuta lived in the late Miocene in Africa, Asia and Europe. And actively hunted large animals, herbivores and carnivores. Animals like the woolly rhinoceros (which bones have been found with tooth marks posilizados of Dinocrocuta cured, so it is given an active role in not only hunting and predator) the Paraceratherium, the Platybelodon, Calicoterios Anisonodon and even the great mammoth.

Chasmaporthetes



This prehistoric animal is an animal very curious. Due to the different characteristics was an animal uncommon, and is called Chasmaporthetes, although not really a distinct species, it really is the family of a peculiar group of hyenas. Chasmaporthetes size is about 1 meter (3,3 ft) tall at the withers and an average of 80 kg (170 lbs). To get an idea, would be as large as the spotted hyenas that appear in documentaries in Africa but, more graceful, slightly taller and less robust.

The two main features of this hyena are:


First, their teeth. The Hyaenidae are characterized by a modified dentition for intervention on the hard tissues of the mammalian skeleton, and this is because most species are scavengers. However, representatives of the genre were primarily hunters Chasmaporthetes. I remember talking about the kind of prehistoric hyena Pachycrocuta (giant hyena), had a bite so powerful, so strong teeth and was so great that I could grind up the bones of elephants, LINK.

But back to what we want. When the experts found the jaw of Chasmaporthetes began to think that this species were mostly carrion, but rather active predators. To understand the difference, we could say that their molar teeth were made to cut, and not crushed. Something like the current cats, they are better equipped to hunt than to live on carrion.

The idea that predators were reinforced when analyzing its skeleton, found that their physiology was specialized in speed. Experts think that the Chasmaporthetes could reach up to 100 km / h (64 mll/h) and had to compete with the giant cheetah Acinonyx pardinensis of the time. Her long legs and slender body adapted to the speed, gave him a look that is classified in the group of hyena-like dogs ... talk about it another day.


Secondly, its distribution. We are accustomed to seeing the hyenas in Africa or South Asia and is easy to think that we in the east half and the Strait of Gibraltar, the hyenas could colonize Asia and Europe. For example, in Europe was the spice Chasmaporthetes lunensis. Well, another species, called Chasmaporthetes australis was the only species of hyena that through the Bering Strait colonized all of North America. This may not tell you much but it was this species, the swift hunter hyena, hyena more common around the world and of all time (although it is hardly known today). Lived parts of the world more than any other hyena, whether extinct or still alive.

Chasmaporthetes is a genus that lived in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America about 15 million years ago during the Miocene. In short, a sort of prehistoric animal that I thought you would like to know if you love animals, prehistoric or not.

Mammuthus creticus. The dwarf mammoth.


 When you tell a woman that looks like a mammoth, she'll think you're saying fat, at least. But if you tell a man, surely he will think you are calling strong and big ... and perhaps hairy. But that's not true, not all mammoths were large and strong and hairy. We saw that some mammoths reached 5 meters in height and 9 long and weighed 12 tons. We referred to the largest species, the Sungari mammoth ("Mammoth Songhua River"). But like I said, there are different species. Possibly the smallest species of the order of the Proboscidea (Mammoth) is the Mammuthus creticus which as its name suggests, lived on the island of Crete.
Lived 3.5 million years ago on the island. And "If you could rebuild, it would be like a baby elephant, but stouter, with thicker members and look chubby. Would have had a lock of adult tusks," Herridge said in a statement from the Natural History Museum in London.

Not exceed one meter high, and basically be like an adult but about 5 times smaller and lighter, and less hairy.
Apparently, size dwarf was a response to the lack of resources of the islands, because apart from Crete remains have been found in other Mediterranean islands.

Another adaptation to the climatic characteristics of the Mediterranean islands, was the removal of the protective layer of hair. It had hair like his predecessors. Keep in mind that the climate of this island is quite pleasant and seldom falls below zero.

The colonization of the Mediterranean islands occurred in successive drainage schemes in the Mediterranean, up to 10 times in the last 6 million years, or lowered sea level, which facilitated the passage between them and the European continent.




The Platybelodon, an ancestor of the elephant.

The Platybelodon was one of the ancestors that gave rise to modern elephants, though not unique, but so is the strangest appearance.

The Platybelodon was herbivorous, and like the current hippos, spent much time in the swamp water where they feed on aquatic plants. One of the most curious features of this animal from the Miocene was his two bottom teeth shovel-shaped. Two teeth were disproportionately long and wide, however, the teeth (protruding into the mammoths, mastodons and elephants) were small and insignificant.
Another use of these teeth is lower than was to grab the trunk and branches, serrated rubbing against the lower teeth to cut the tree.

Robust and heavy as a small elephant, it can weigh over a ton and a half and could grow to 2 meters high. As I said before, lived during the Miocene, from 15-4 million years, and lived in Africa, Europe, Asia and North America. Although it thrived during his time, did not survive beyond the Miocene. Although no one knows exactly why he died.
In any case, this curious animal, this ancestor of the elephant, the mastodon or mammoth, is an example of the diversity and richness of fauna in prehistoric times.

Baryonyx "heavy claw. "



As put in the post title, Baryonyx means "heavy claw. " "Heavy Claw"because its huge claws slashed to 35 cm long (1 ft) perforated skin of other dinosaurs, their prey, unable to prevent the tear resist them. "Heavy Claw"because its forelimbs were strong with powerful muscles used both to support and move to attack their prey.

Depending on the shape of the hip, suggests that to move at high speed using all four legs, but at rest or attack was on a biped.

The long neck was very inflexible and had no S-shape of many other theropods. The skull was inserted at an acute angle and not straight, as is common in similar dinosaurs. The large jaws were uniquely crocodilian in appearance and had 96 teeth, double most of his relatives. 64 of these teeth were located in the lower jaw and 32, longer at the top. It is possible that the nose has a small ridge. The upper jaw had an acute angle near the snout, a feature seen in crocodiles that helps prevent the prey from escaping.

The Baryonyx was about 9 (30 ft) meters long and weighed nearly two tons and 4 meters (12 fts) high. FIRST This dinosaur was a predator, although its features is thought that large numbers of prey were aquatic animals. The teeth of his jaw that prevented their prey bite out of her with his huge claws and drew water for prey.

The Baryonyx lived in what is now Europe 125 million years ago (Cretaceous).

BY THE WAY IT IS OF THE SAME FAMILY Spinosaurus. (Spinosauridae)


Megistotherium


The Andrewsarchus or Androsarcus, was considered the largest carnivorous mammal history, but that position was occupied not alone. Along with this there is another giant carnivorous mammal, called Megistotherium (and some experts say it could even be larger than the Andrewsarchus). The Megistotherium was a terrible predator, a predator who struck fear Miocene to the titanic mastodons (found fossilized bones of mastodons with Megistotherium marks indicating that hunting for food).
The Megistotherium belonged to the family of Hyaenodontidae, a family of large predators, strong, aggressive and courageous. Predators that were in the top of the food chain before the mega saber-toothed cats like, or the greatest, the cave lion.
The Megistotherium lived in what is now Europe, Africa and Asia. As large as the current bison, weigh up to 1500 kg (3300 lb) and a height to the shoulders of more than 1.5 meters long and 3.5 (a white bear almost never reaches 1000 kg (2200 lb) and is 2.5 meters long). The dimensions of the skull were Megistotherium up to 1 meter long (similar to Androsarcus) and his jaw with a force of enormous pressure, harbored very powerful teeth can grind the hardest parts of prey such as bones or hooves. Do not forget that the family is synonymous Hyaenodontidae hyena's tooth, and these (the hyenas) are known for the strength of their jaws and teeth trituratodo. To get an idea, your name, Megistotherium, means "the biggest beast crushed bones."

The famous Bear-dog or Amphicyon


Imagine the world's largest wolf, and now doubling in size, finally give steroids to duplicate the musculature. Throw in claws bigger than a grizzly with a strong legs to run and reach high speeds ... That leaves us? As a predator that existed from the mid-Oligocene and early Miocene. His name was Amphicyon ingens (dog ambiguous) or commonly known as Bear-dog.
This prehistoric beast could be up to three meters and weigh up to 400 kg. Given its size, you might think was not very fast, but do not be fooled, it is thought that hunted their prey in ambush and surprised with a quick career. The smell was due to an as refined as a bloodhound and a fine ear. Type of game similar to the great bears today. He could hunt animals as robust as the old giant sloths or rhinos.

He lived in Europe and Asia and later introduced in North America by the Bering Strait (humans migrated from Asia to the Americas through the strait, possibly taking advantage of a glacial period and the freezing of the Sea) competition in North America other carnivorous even more ... the Daeodon or "terrible pig."

Hyena giant or Pachycrocuta Brevirostris.


Famous is the force that have the jaws of the hyenas that can reach pressures of 350 kg (600lb)and teeth grinding of hard bones and teeth and hooves. Well, now imagine a hyena twice as big, twice as strong and a powerful jaw twice ... this animal there was Pachycrocuta brevirostris.



Pachycrocuta a genus of prehistoric hyenas. The largest specimen, well-documented part of the species of giant hyenas Pachycrocuta brevirostris. With a height of 1 meter (39 in) and weigh up to 120 kg (250 lb).Un similar in size to a small lioness.
This size would make it the largest of the hyenas that have ever lived. He lived from the Middle Pliocene and Middle Pleistocene, about 3 million and 500,000 years ago.
Found fossils in Eurasia and southern and eastern Africa. In dens, caves used as dens.
Scavenger and a predator could be stubborn and tenacious to deer hunting big and small package was probably a hunter of large animals (up to larger deer and occasionally as Megaloceros). The chance of a scavenger is sensed it was a very big animal not built for chasing prey over long distances. In this aspect would have differed from today spotted hyena, which is a more agile animal that, contrary to his image of the documentaries, also kills his own food. Apparently it was ecologically close enough to the smaller (but still important) in relation perrieri Pliocrocuta never found as fossils contemporaries in the same region.

This is a very beautiful reconstruction extracted qi.com

Giant deer or Megaloceros


The Irish elk, Giant deer Megaloceros deer is the largest in history. Like a large deer, his antlers were up to 3.5 m from tip to tip. Although he lived in Europe and much of Asia for half a million years to extinction in recent times, often known as "Irish elk" for the abundant findings of specimens preserved in the peat bogs of Ireland.
The giant deer reached a height of 2.2 m to the cross in the case of males, significantly higher than the largest of the moose. It was a species with strong sexual dimorphism, as females were significantly smaller and slender than the males, in addition to lacking an impressive antlers.
The giant deer grazers were animals that thrived on abundant grass and shrubs in the large, cold plains covering much of Eurasia during the Pleistocene.
Antlers were so large that it required large amounts of calcium and phosphate to form occurring cases of osteoporosis among male Irish elk, so that mortality, already high, increased in bad years.
This fantastic animal became extinct only 7000 years. Were extinguished by changes in the field that were caused by early Neolithic farmers Russian.

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