Showing posts with label Europe. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Europe. Show all posts

Acrocanthosaurus



Without quite knowing why, Acrocanthosaurus lived to the public under the shadow of T.Rex, still a great unknown to most and undervalued its role as a hunter at the time of the Cretaceous in North America and Europe.


About the size of T.Rex, the Acrocanthosaurus was a cousin of Allosaurus and, as this was a hunter specializing in large animals, giant sauropods like Diplodocus weighing 6 or 7 times or Pleurocoelus.
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The name of this lizard Acrocanthosaurus means "thorn lizard high" and indeed, when it was discovered, even mistook him for the BIG SPINOSARUS (King of Kings). The theme of the spines always generates controversy and do not become experts agree: if they were to regulate the temperature, if it was to swim, to show your mood, or to house unions with strong muscles ... too numerous to write about this but we'll see another day.

Speaking of muscles, the Acrocanthosaurus was very muscular and strong, much more than others allosaurids. Something like an Allosaurus largest and steroids. It measured 12 meters and weighed 5.6 tons, and this made ​​him a bit slow *. He ran and ran up to the big sauropods (which is not that they were cheetahs) long necks and hooked to these formidable pulling their strong claws and bite with all his weight down, dropping these titanic beasts.

* It was the weight and slow what they did to specialize in hunting large animals, or vice versa, hunting big beasts Acrocanthosaurus led to larger and more robust. Finally, the case is to specialize in this way produced an end. Forms were disappearing with the big sauropods, the Acrocanthosaurus were increasingly less likely to hunt and smaller dams could more easily escape them. His strength was his undoing.




Andrewsarchus or "androsarcus"



The Andrewsarchus is related to the sheep and goat, but has wolf's clothing. Mmífero was a giant of the time. It has a meter jaws, and scavenger. They lived in the late Eocene.
He walked on four short legs and a long body, long tail, and feet with hoofed toes. He had a long snout with large, sharp teeth and flat teeth may have been used to crush bones.
Had a length from snout to the back of the pelvis of about 3.4 m and a height from the ground to the shoulder or mid-back of approximately 1.5 m. Probably weighed about 1000 kg
Your diet may have been more carnivorous and omnivorous that is not yet clear whether he was a hunter or scavenger, because the teeth are more characteristic of a scavenger with teeth grinding.
He is considered the largest known terrestrial carnivore to date.

Crassigyrinus scoticus


Crassigyrinus scoticus (large tadpole) had a streamlined body up to 1.5 meters long and 30 cm wide.
The prehistoric animal legs were small in comparison to his body and probably of little value, this indicates that the Crassigyrinus scoticus was perfectly adapted to aquatic environments and did not venture in land area.

The highlight of the Crassigyrinus scoticus was that he was big and strong jaws, equipped with two rows of sharp teeth.
Studies have shown that this Carboniferous animal had a jaw opening up to 60 ° can easily catch their prey. To this we must add a lot of pressure that made his jaw bite one of the most fearsome of the time.

The jaw opening and the speed and agility that gave it its long body and aerodynamic, suggests that between prey fish came fast movements.

Crassigyrinus had eyes rather large, thereby helping to find prey in dark places or in murky water.

This prehistoric amphibian lived in Europe (fossils have been found mainly in Scotland) during the Carboniferous.

Megalosaurus.


Megalosaurus was a predator of some up to 10 meters long and weighing 1 t. He lived in what is now Europe, America, Asia and Africa during the Jurassic period, 181 made 169 million years.
Among their prizes were sauropods, large prehistoric animals and stegosaurs and mammals.
Besides being a fast predator, with speeds that could reach 40 km / h thanks to its well-balanced structure, the Megalosaurus also got their food scavenging.
The Megalosaurus was one of the first dinosaur discoveries, England 1818. At that time, and seeing the fossils found, these bones were so enormous that gave its name Megalosaurus (great lizard).
The jaw of Megalosaurus had teeth long and curved, strongly subject to the gums to avoid losing in the struggle. The teeth were sharp with the corrugated edge that worked like a saw. Ripping a more efficient prey.
To make matters worse, had prehistoric animal with sharp claws and tear that held the hard skin of the victims.

Ceratosaurus



The Ceratosaurus had skulls with a structure similar to the dorsal horn on the snout, centrally placed in the nasal cast. They had fused sacral bones (Synsacrum) and the pelvic bones together and held together this structure. A row of small bony nodules or osteoderms were presented under the middle of the back.

The Ceratosaurus could have competed with Allosaurus and Torvosaurus for the same prey (giant sauropods Diplodocus, Apatosaurus and Camarasaurus), but this was smaller by about 6 to 8 meters in length, 2.5 in height, and weighing from 500 kg to 1 tonne would have an ecological niche occupied separately from their larger cousins. Moreover, the Ceratosaurus had a longer body and supple, with a tail shaped like a crocodile. This suggests that was a better swimmer and Torvosaurus Allosaurus. A recent study showed that Robert Bakker Ceratosaurus dams usually hunted waterfowl, such as fish and reptiles, but also had great potential to feed on dinosaurs. The study also indicates that adults and juveniles sometimes ate together. This evidence is, of course, very debatable and Ceratosaurus teeth marks are very common in large dams fossils of dinosaurs on land. Another common theory is that the Ceratosaurus has preyed primarily on Dryosaurus, Camptosaurus, and other ornithopods, since it seems a Lonely Hunter adults unable to break down sauropods. An alternative is that the ceratosaur eat carrion of large bodies of sauropods, displacing small small predators.







Ceratosaurus ("lagarto cornudo") que vivieron a finales del período Jurásico, hace aproximadamente 152 y 145 millones de años, en el Kimeridgiano y el Titoniano, en lo que hoy es Norteamérica, África y posiblemente en Europa.

Velociraptor.



To be a Velociraptor dromaeosaurid was relatively small, the adults reach a length of 2 m, and approximately 0.5 meters in height at the hip, and weighing about 15 kg. The skull, about 25 cm long, was uniquely up-curved, with a concave upper surface and a convex bottom. The jaws were lined with 26 or 28 teeth on each side, the rear edge of each tooth was markedly serrated.
But of all the features that made the Velociraptor a murderer efficient and sharp curved claws were the most dangerous. Located on the second toe of each foot, these claws were a fine point and were flattened laterally, like the claws of a cat. When the Velociraptor ran, stretched claws held back so as not touching the ground and did not lose their edge.
When the Velociraptor attack, the claw could project forward and down while HADB a strong kick. Thus, the claw could act as a razor-sharp knife and result in protracted and deep cuts in their prey, probably bleed to death.
Velociraptor is well known in his role as a cruel and cunning murderer may attack small offspring from larger dinosaurs such as Triceratops.

Velociraptor (meaning "swift thief") in Castilian Velociraptor, is a dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived during the Campanian to the late Cretaceous period, makes about 70 to 65 million years. On the mainland, which is in Europe and Asia.

Iguanodon


This was a robust animal prehistoric herbivore that could switch between bipedal to quadrupedal. The well-known species, I. bernissartensis, it is estimated that weighed about 3 tons on average, and measure about 10 feet long when adult, with some specimens possibly would have reached 13 meters.
The arms were long, up to 75% of the length of the legs with inflexible hands built so that the three central fingers could bear weight.

One of the first details on the iguanodons noticed was that I had reptile herbivore teeth (Iguanodon means "Iguana tooth" as they were of a similar but larger and with a greater destructive capacity) although there was not always consensus on how to eat .

There is no evidence to support a sexual dimorphism, as in hadrosaurs and Ceratopsia.

It is thought that they lived in herds of several dozen individuals as fossils have been found in certain circumstances, several bodies Iguanadon in ancient lakes or rivers, possibly due to the flood of these during migration.

They lived in the early Cretaceous period, makes about 130 to 120 million years (mong the Berriasian and Aptian) in what is now Europe. And in North America.



The scion of thumb is one of the best known features of the iguanodons. Yet it was placed, initially, in the nose by Mantell. When they found the complete copies in Bernissart Dollo realized the mistake and I put in place fingerprint, thumb amended.

Allosaurus Europaeus.


Allosaurus was a large bipedal predator with a large skull, equipped with dozens of large, sharp teeth. It averaged 8.5 meters (28 ft) in length, though fragmentary remains suggest it could have reached over 12 meters (39 ft). Relative to the large and powerful hindlimbs, its three-fingered forelimbs were small, and the body was balanced by a long, heavy tail.

Allosaurus fragilis, the best-known species, had an average length of 8.5 meters (28 ft), with the largest definitive Allosaurus specimen estimated at 9.7 meters long (32 ft), and an estimated weight of 2.3 metric tons (2.5 short tons).

The skull and teeth of Allosaurus were modestly proportioned for a theropod of its size.

Allosaurus is a genus of large theropod dinosaur that lived 155 to 145 million years ago, in the late Jurassic period in the Kimmeridgian and Tithonian, in what is now North America and Europe.

Gerrothorax


Gerrothorax is an extinct genus of amphibian temnospondyl who lived in the late Triassic period (about 210 million years ago) in what is now Germany and Greenland. Reached an approximate length of 1 meter. Their bodies are flattened, suggesting they were hiding under the sand or mud at the bottom of rivers and lakes as potential victims stalked her large eyes focused upward. The skull had a peculiar way with angular protrusions on both sides. This geometry of the skull is reminiscent of the genus Diplocaulus, but less developed.

Fossils show that the species of this genus were pedomórficas, keeping three pairs of gills also in the adult stage, which allowed them to breathe underwater. This feature also found in some current caudate, as in certain species of the family and Ambystomatidae Mudpuppy.


Curiosity: The lower jaw was fixed Gerrothorax and chewing had to raise his head and drop it. That is, exactly the opposite of what we do and almost all the animals of creation.

Hyracotherium

Hyracotherium (beast like a Hyrax), also known as Eohippus, is a genus of mammal Perissodactyla Palaeotheriidae family.

It is considered an ancestor of the horse, rhinoceros and tapir. It is a quadruped animal that lived in the Northern Hemisphere (Asia, Europe and North America) during the Eocene period, makes 60 to 45 million years. The line to the existing horse evolució through the following animals Preistorica: Oligohippus, Merichippus, Pliohippus. In chronological order.



Hyracotherium was a small herbivore the size of a fox, media cross about 35 inches and weighed 6 kg, had four toes on the forefeet and three on hind paws protected, the central one being longer. These animals were already clearly like the horse, despite its small size and probably lived in forests browsing. His teeth were adapted for the consumption of young leaves of the bushes and his eyes were different from modern horses as they were located more to the center of the head preventing a good side vision (which in the modern horse serves as defensive system), Eohippus but did not need because in the jungle environment in which they lived, was more effective camouflage to avoid predators.

Pterodactylus.



Pterodactylus is a genus of pterosaur (the first to be named and identified as a flying reptile) that lived during the late Jurassic Period. Fossils have been discovered in Europe and Africa.Its name refers to the long finger that holds the wing-like membrane bats. It was a carnivore and probably preyed upon fish and other small animals.

Pterodactylus was a relatively small pterosaur genus, with adult wingspans ranging from 50 centimeters (1.5 ft) in P. kochi to 2.4 meters (8 ft) in P. grandis

Pterodactylus was found to have a striated soft-tissue crest on the skull. Soft tissue impressions also showed unusually long, sharp, and recurved keratin sheaths on its claws. It was covered in hair-like integument, with a mane of longer hair running down the back of its neck.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pterodactylus

Mosasaurus


Mosasaurus was among the last mosasaur genera, and among the largest. The skull was more robustly built than other mosasaurs, as the mandibles articulated very tightly with the skull. It had a deep, barrel-shaped body, and with its fairly large eyes, poor binocular vision, and poorly developed olfactory bulbs, experts believe that Mosasaurus lived near the ocean surface, where it preyed on fish, turtles, ammonites, and possibly smaller mosasaurs. The animal remained near the surface and although it was able to dive, it evidentially did not venture into deeper waters.

The skull of Mosasaurus tapered off into a short, conical process, and the jaws were armed with massive, sharp, conical teeth. Their paddle-like limbs had five digits in front and four in back. The trunk terminated in a strong tail which, together with serpentine undulation of the whole body, contributed far more to the animal's locomotion that did the limbs.

Because of its robust skull and tightly articulating jaws, Mosasaurus was unable to swallow prey-items whole in the manner of earlier mosasaurs, such as Tylosaurus[citation needed]. Instead, with the aid of its curved, knife-like teeth, Mosasaurus was able to tear its prey into more manageable pieces that could be more easily swallowed.

Mosasaurus ("lizard of the Meuse River") was a genus of mosasaur, a carnivorous, aquatic lizard, somewhat resembling a flippered crocodile, with elongated heavy jaws. The genus lived in the Maastrichtian age of the Cretaceous period (Mesozoic era), around 70-65 millions years ago in the area of modern Western Europe.



As with most mosasaurs, their legs and feet are modified into hydrofoil-like flippers, with the forelimbs larger than the hindlimbs. Like its American relatives Tylosaurus and Hainosaurus, Mosasaurus reached lengths of about 17 meters.

Allosaurus.



Allosaurus fragilis had an average length of 8.5 meters (28 ft), with the largest definitive Allosaurus specimen (AMNH 680) estimated at 9.7 meters long (32 ft), and an estimated weight of 2.3 metric tons (2.5 short tons).Allosaurus was a typical large theropod, having a massive skull on a short neck, a long tail and reduced forelimbs. As with dinosaurs in general, weight estimates are debatable, and since 1980 have ranged between 1500 kilograms (3300 lb), 1000 to 4000 kilograms (2200 to 8800 lb), and 1010 kilograms (2230 lb) for modal adult weight (not maximum).

Several gigantic specimens have been attributed to Allosaurus, but may in fact belong to other genera. The closely related genus Saurophaganax (OMNH 1708) reached perhaps 10.9 meters (36 ft) in length, and its single species has sometimes been included in the genus Allosaurus as Allosaurus maximus, though recent studies support it as a separate genus. Another potential specimen of Allosaurus, once assigned to the genus Epanterias (AMNH 5767), may have measured 12.1 meters in length (40 ft). A more recent discovery is a partial skeleton from the Peterson Quarry in Morrison rocks of New Mexico; this large allosaurid may be another individual of Saurophaganx.


Skull

Skull of the Allosaurus fragilis skeleton mounted in the lobby of the San Diego Natural History Museum. The skull and teeth of Allosaurus were modestly proportioned for a theropod of its size. Paleontologist Gregory S. Paul gives a length of 845 millimeters (33.3 in) for a skull belonging to an individual he estimates at 7.9 meters long (26 ft). Each premaxilla (the bones that formed the tip of the snout), held five teeth with D-shaped cross-sections, and each maxilla (the main tooth-bearing bones in the upper jaw) had between fourteen and seventeen teeth; the number of teeth does not exactly correspond to the size of the bone. Each dentary (the tooth-bearing bone of the lower jaw) had between fourteen and seventeen teeth, with an average count of sixteen.

The skull had a pair of horns above and in front of the eyes. These horns were composed of extensions of the lacrimal bones,and varied in shape and size. There were also lower paired ridges running along the top edges of the nasal bones that led into the horns. The horns were probably covered in a keratin sheath and may have had a variety of functions, including acting as sunshades for the eye, being used for display, and being used in combat against other members of the same species (although they were fragile). There was a ridge along the back of the skull roof for muscle attachment, as is also seen in tyrannosaurids.


Allosaurus is a genus of large theropod dinosaur that lived 155 to 145 million years ago, in the late Jurassic period (Kimmeridgian to Tithonian). The name Allosaurus means "different lizard" and is derived from the Greek αλλος/allos ("different, strange") and σαυρος/sauros ("lizard"). The first remains that can definitely be ascribed to this genus were described in 1877 by Othniel Charles Marsh. As one of the first well-known theropod dinosaurs, it has long attracted attention outside of paleontological circles, and has been a lead dinosaur in several films and documentaries.

Allosaurus was a large bipedal predator with a large skull, equipped with dozens of large, sharp teeth. The preys of the Allosaurus were the Diplodocus or Stegosaurus.

Miacis


Miacis is an extinct that appeared in the late Paleocene (ca. 60-55 million years ago) and are mammals of the family Miacidae. They are representative of the group of early carnivores that were the ancestors of the modern Order Carnivora, although only the species Miacis cognitus is a true carnivoran. Thus, Miacis may be considered the genus of carnivorous mammals that gave rise to all modern Carnivora (dogs and cats).

Miacis was about the size of a weasel (~30 cm), and lived on the North American and European continents. They retained some of the primitive characteristics that were present in the Creodonts, the sister order of Carnivora, such as low skulls, long slender bodies, long tails, and short legs. It retained the same number of teeth, 44, although some reductions in this number were apparently in progress and some of the teeth were reduced in size.

The hind limbs were longer than the forelimbs, the pelvis was very doglike in form and structure, and some specialized traits were present in the vertebrae. It had retractable claws, agile joints for climbing, and binocular vision. Miacis and related forms had brains that were relatively larger than those of the creodonts, and the increase in brain size as compared with body size probably reflects an increase in intelligence.

Like many other early carnivorans, it was well suited for an arboreal climbing lifestyle with needle sharp claws, and had limbs and joints that resemble those of modern carnivorans. Miacis was probably a very agile forest dweller that preyed upon smaller animals, such as small mammals, reptiles, and birds, and might have also have eaten eggs and fruits.

Pareiasaurus


Pareiasaurus large quadruped, about 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) long, with elephantine legs, walking in a typically reptilian posture. Its skull had several spine- and wart-like protrusions. The scales may have provided some protection against predators. Pareiasaurus's leaf-shaped teeth, ideal for biting through tough plant fibers, indicate it was a herbivore. Even the palate had teeth.
Pareiasaurus is an extinct genus of anapsid reptile from the Permian period. It was a typical member of its family, the pareiasaurs, which take their name from this genus.

Pareiasaurs appear very suddenly in the fossil record. It is clear that these animals evolved from Rhipaeosaurs to fill the large herbivore niche (or guild) that had been occupied early in the Permian period by the Caesid pelycosaurs and before then the Diadectid amphibians and Edaphosaur reptiles. In fact it may well have been the extinction of the Caesids created an ecological vacuum that enabled the Pareiasaurs to appear and suddenly diversify as rapidly as they did (within the span of only two million years).

It has been often suggested that these animals were semi-aquatic.

It has recently been argued that Pareiasaurs may have evolved into turtles. They had turtle-like skull features, and several genera had bony plates in the skin, possibly the first signs of a turtle shell. However, the case for turtle ancestry is not proven.

Probably, the Pareiasaurus were the victims of Titanophoneus.
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