Showing posts with label Dinosaurs. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Dinosaurs. Show all posts


We found another giant dino in Argentia. A country where we found a large dinosaurs such as Argentinosaurus, Giganotosaurus, the Tyrannotitán or Madtsodia Bai, all with records in size and can be many sauropods, theropods, or the serpent, the world's largest.

The name of the great saurian, a large sauropod and what some call "the king of the dinosaurs," has been named to Dreadnoughtus, which could translate as "he who fears nothing."

Maybe call it "the king of the dinosaurs" is a bit exaggerated. Mostly because if there was a king, this could be the Argentinosaurus, a saurian also found in Patagonia Argentina but measuring up to 35 meters in length; this is about 8 meters more than Dreadnoughtus measuring 26 meters. We must clarify that the measures that have been extracted from fossils found, and it seems, could be a copy would not be fully developed, so it can even be bigger or heavier.

If we compare the weights, Dreadnoughtus reaches 65 tons. And the Argentinosaurus perfectly exceeded 100 tons, some estimates put it at 130 tonnes.

Dreadnoughtus What do we know?

First of all note a curiosity, the name refers to one of the battleships armed Argentina: monocaliber battleships. But do not mix ....

What is striking is that this prehistoric animal were recently discovered, and not one or two bones as usual, but much of the skeleton. It has been found 70% of the skeleton, also in very good condition and its deformation (by the weight of the earth) is minimal. In fact, it has provided new information about the pelvis, extremities and shoulder girdle of Titanosauria family. A family that owned the Dreadnoughtus but also Diplodocus, Giraffatitan or Argentinosaurus.

They were large herbivores that dominated the earth, like all sauropods. Elongated necks and stylized whiplike tails. A highlight feature of this lizard, was that its neck was compared with other sauropods, a bit thicker and more muscular.

The great saurian lived in the forests of what is now South America 75 million years (Cretaceous) ago.


Before the Jurassic period, the great age of the dinosaurs, we find the Triassic, not as well known but very interesting events. In this period when the continents are separated from Pangea, facilitating new diversity of different species. During the Triassic mammal-like reptiles disappeared or mammal-like reptiles ... a type of animal that are midway between mammals and reptiles, and it was late in the period when the first dinosaurs dinosaurs (again because it gives me the wins).

An example of these reptiles mamiferoides disappeared are cynodonts. The cynodont is a missing link between reptiles and mammals, in fact, its name literally means "dog teeth" and if we saw it, we remind some kind of dachshund with a little alopecia. It is an animal that does not exceed one meter in length, with a small, thick tail of about 30 cm. It fed on insects and small reptiles.

When it ran, its back was moving from side to side like a lizard running (just imagine a komodo dragon running); but its body has hair and live in burrows with his beloved spouse, like mammals.

Another feature of this prehistoric animal and half mammal, half reptile, is the offspring. The couple lived cynodont within a burrow, and inside this put the eggs were hatching, like most reptiles. However, when pups out breaking the shell, they were totally dependent on their parents. For example we see that existing crocodiles out of the burrow and are adults but reduced, however, the size of most mammals are born and take time to break away from the mother because they are dependent and need to develop a strategy is more ... survival differently. Well so do the cynodonts, pup birth three months are left sucking the milk from the glands of the mother and not leave the den until they are developed enough. This is a clever way that the offspring is not threatened by predators that may have the outside world.

How I love the picture above, it is as if it were a super-predator, dangerous and totally unscrupulous murderer mammiform. But let's face it, maybe it was like in the image below.

The importance of these mammal-like reptiles, is that these small mammals evolve and hairy (the size of mice or squirrels), since dinosaurs were the kings of the food chain for 160 million years. You and I probably have in our genes the essence of cynodonts.


Ladies and gentlemen, sorry for a season without dealing the blog as much as I would have liked, but that is over. Moreover, nothing happens, the dinosaurs are timeless and, in gratitude and with intent to redeem myself, I want to show you one of the most picturesque dinosaurs that ever lived. This is the Chirostenotes, the "narrow hands."

You see the image below, you will understand what the name refers Chirostenotes or "close hand" ... no trick, its hands were narrow.

The "hands" of this saurian, were long and narrow, with very long fingers ending in sharp claws. That is the main feature.

Another feature of this prehistoric animal was its head. Look at the image below.

You know who is? As this animal is a Cassowary, a bird now living in Australia and New Guinea ... and is very aggressive. It is thought that the ridge has the Cassowary is similar to that which took the Chirostenotes. In fact, it seemed a little ... even thought this lizard was a bird. It had feathers, was bipedal, lakes and light arms and a crest like a Cassowary. But it really was not a bird.

Chirostenotes's jaw was sort of a parrot but was full of teeth. Media about 3 meters long and when were stood as tall as the average man. Grew to weigh no more than 60 kg. And think were fast and agile hunters who traveled at high speed and making great leaps and light careers.

It lived 75 million years ago in what is now Canada. And it is known today more than ever, especially for children, as it is one of the protagonists of the series of drawings Dinotren. Is smug and was known as Keenan.


The name "Barosaurus" refers to the size of this dinosaur. It is one of the greatest of all time, similar in size to Diplodocus.

The Barosaurus could reach up to 30 meters long and, at first sight, we would observe that it is the classic sauropod. Elongated, with stretched neck and whiplike tail with a tiny head and resting on its 4 legs. Was proportionally more massive than the Diplodocus, and this one was because its tail but was not as long, compared the neck itself was longer than the diplodocus.

Such a long neck poses many problems, especially uploading blood to the head that rose to the highest eat leaves of the highest trees. To address this, the general opinion raises the option of having a powerful and great heart. It has been estimated that the heart of this prehistoric animal could be as heavy and as big as the heaviest and largest bison: a heart of 1500 kg ...

Another option raises the possibility that something was 8 hearts .... funny because I know, some cephalopods have more than one heart ... but eight?
Another option is posed that Barosaurus veins had valves closed and allowed to recede and the blood does not create pressure which could be fatal. This method prevents the giraffes do not exploit their veins when head down to drink.
Mathematical models have clarified the issue, and have come to the conclusion that the animal raised its head .... then why such a long neck?

Another thing that attracts attention is that its neck vertebrae was huge. Of course, the whole animal was huge, have said the size of heart, but get an idea of ​​what our small neck vertebrae that are ... for those of Barosaurus larger than 1 meter. However, it is thought that these vertebrae were hollow, that it can reduce the weight of the neck.

Vegetarian and small head, this would be a great animal that if we go back 150 million years and travel to Africa, we would see it and we should be amazed that it was so big. We should be amazed that on Earth we know today had ever had a big animal.


Within the family of ceratopsidae (those horned animals that lived in the prehistory), we can find some animals we know. Since Torosaurus (large and with two horns) to the Eotriceratops, Triceratops (always represented fighting a T. Rex and three horns) and Pentaceratops (smaller than the other two but with 5 horns) ...

As you can see, in this short list you can see that the number of horns increases between 2 and 5. At the end of the list more would see the ceratopsian horns, Styracosaurus, the protagonist of this entry.

The name means lizard Styracosaurus horns.

It had a horn on the front of the head, one big and long, but most of the horns, to which its name refers, are those found in the "wheel" of the head, a bone coating that protects the neck. A hedge that protects the neck from predators carnivores such as T. Rex. But the horns of Styracosaurus, not small bony protuberances, horns are up to 60 cm long and 15 cm wide at the base. This contained the snacks in the neck and the same also used for exposing himself to females.

So, this herbivore than 3 tons and 6 meters long would be therefore difficult to kill prey. Fossils found dead near ceratopsidae Tiranosauros like Styracosaurus who have tried to hunt. Hunt In Styracosaurus, T. Rex could be gored to death.

The horns and shells daubed the neck, the most vulnerable part of the animal, predators could not bite the neck without risk a fatal goring. The predator hunting tactics would try to turn the Styracosaurus and put belly up, where the T.Rex would find the most soft, unprotected part and away from the huge antlers.

This large herbivorous mid Cretaceous lived in what is now North America. And from afar, remind us a huge rhino with large spiked collar and long tail. Indeed, like other ceratopsidae, had a mouth shaped peak finished ... psittacosaurus reminds me.

Bruhathkayosaurus measuring

As we have the latest posts dedicated to mammals, marsupials antique and prehistoric arthropods, the truth is that this time I wanted to speak again about dinosaurs, large reptiles ... titanic sized reptiles ... I love it!

The prehistoric animal which we will discuss today, is called Bruhathkayosaurus (which does not refer to a yoga posture which we might call "the reptile"). Its name comes from the Sanskrit bruhath (बृहत) "big, fat", and Kaya (काय) "body" and then, from the Greek meaning saurus reptile: the lizard of large, heavy body.

The Bruhathkayosaurus, and specifically the spice called matleyi, was a giant sauropod, titanosaurids-called. A titanic as the famous sauropod Argentinosaurus and Diplodocus: large herbivorous reptiles 4 legs, long necks and long tails.

By name, Bruhathkayosaurus, we can intuit that the bones have been found in India. And their fossilized bones can extract and calculate the dimensions of this amazing beast. Compare with the two other known sauropods.

The Diplodocus was 30 feet and 80 tons.

The Argentinosaurus 35 meters and 100 tons (some think more).

The Bruhathkayosaurus measuring 40 meters and could weigh up to 140 tons.

If one day we will be sure of the existence of Amphicoelias, Bruhathkayosaurus could say that would be the second largest dinosaur on Earth ... but since we are not sure of the existence of Amphicoelias we can say: the Bruhathkayosaurus, the animal was longer and heavier than ever existed. I will not get into an argument about its dimensions ... if yes, if not ... the point is that rivaled in size with the known Argentinosaurus. (sorry for the Argentines who were proud of the huge prehistoric animal bearing the name of their country).

Keep in mind that 140 tons is a lot, sometimes, we get lost in numbers and costs us get an idea of ​​the size ... for example, we can compare it with 21 male African elephants.

The Bruhathkayosaurus lived in the late Cretaceous period in the Maastrichtian, 70 million years ago in what is now the Indian subcontinent.


Giraffatitan, I think everyone intuit the meaning of the name: Giraffe Titan. This sauropod be at least elongated. For a long time was considered a Brachiosaurus, a prehistoric animal considering for years the largest of all terrestrial dinosaurs. In fact, Wikipedia definitions and descriptions for Giraffatitan Braquiosaurus and is the same.

The only species of the genus is called brancai Giraffatitan measured 25 meters long and 13 tall. That means you could poke your head perfectly by a fourth floor window. And its weight is estimated at 37 tonnes maximum

Unlike other sauropods, had a constitution similar to that of current giraffes with long forelimbs and a long neck, which probably used to feed in the tops of the trees had spatulate teeth very suitable for diet . His skull has many holes, probably to reduce their weight to be a neck support 10 meters long.

The similarities with other sauropods ranging from a small brain compared to his body and he was a vegetarian who ate hundreds of pounds of conifers, ferns, horsetails and ginkgo or bennetites.

He lived in the Upper Jurassic in what is now Africa.


The dimetron, was not a dinosaur but looked very similar. In fact it is closer to the first mammals to reptiles.
This ancestor of mammals was the dominant predator of its time, during the Permian period of the Paleozoic era, made between 280 and 260 million years.
Could reach 3 meters long and had a long tail. A short legs and an elongated body provided them with a motion similar to those of the current monitors.
Another feature is its teeth Dimetrón two different types of teeth: a Shredder and a very sharp cuspids heartbreaking.
But the most distinctive feature is the spectacular dimetrodonte sail on its back. The candle used it, probably, to regulate body temperature because their large surface area allowed to warm up or cool efficiently. The flap was supported by the neural spines, each one sprang from an individual vertebra. You may also wear the dorsal fin in the courtship of mating or to ward off other predators.
The Dimetrón was a fierce predator that used two pairs of sharp pointed canines for tearing the skin of their victims. With the jaws closed, the Dimetrodon appeared to be smiling, but when he opened and showed his wide mouth, his appearance was not friendly at all. His jaws were so large that probably could devour animals of the same size.


Nothosaurus is an extinct genus of sauropsids (reptiles) Triassic marine, was among the first plesiosaurus (like the famous Elasmosaurus). Its name means "fake lizard" and who were not lizards like today's or even a dinosaur.
His teeth, very sharp as daggers, which also fit together those in both jaws, was a perfect trap for fish. Nothosaurus could close the mouth with great force but the muscles that allowed him to reopen it were very weak. Some of the best preserved fossils preserve the skin and drawing show that Nothosaurus had webbed feet, suitable for both the aquatic environment and to the land.
They could spend part of their life on land, on the sand and rocks. The tips allowed them to walk and move awkwardly arched his back, like lions today. You probably arrived on shore to stretch out, relax and warm in the sun, capturing prey on the pools of the shore and to reproduce by laying eggs. Breathed air, as shown by the two nostrils at the top of his nose, and although it was undoubtedly a stylish swimmer, was not so well adapted to an aquatic lifestyle as full-time as Opthalmosaurus ichthyosaurs.

Sauroposeidon, The largest and heaviest dinosaurs of Earth's history

The Sauroposeidon who lived during the Cretaceous, in what is now North America, is the largest known lizard, long and weighing of all land animals throughout the history of the Earth. Hence its name, which means "lizard god of earthquakes."
This vegetarian sauropod is ahead in size and weight above Argentinosaurus, Ultrasauros and other sauropods.
Well, the Sauroposeidon reached 17 meters in height (as a 6-storey building) and weigh up to 60 tons (more than 10 African savannah elephants together) and a length of 35 meters (100 ft).
To give an idea of what was long enough to know that one of his vertebrae could be up to 1.20 meters long (4 ft). And only the neck measuring up to 12 meters (37–39 ft).

This is why it is ranked as the longest dinosaur history.


These amazing animals are among the heaviest dinosaur that ever lived. Although his body resembled that of other sauropods, surpassed in size to most of its peers. It was about 25 times heavier than a giraffe long as three buses and as tall as a six-story building. Its neck and tail, incredibly long, were supported by a backbone like a grill. At the sides of the vertebrae, there were some openings that reduce weight without weakening his back. Most of the weight of its giant dinosaur bore members. Therefore, major bones were the blades, connecting the front legs with the body. The was large and strong, each of them would be higher than a soccer goal. His back was lower than their shoulders, as the hind legs were shorter than the front. When grazing among the plants and bushes, swinging his long neck in all directions. It could reach the juicy leaves of higher tops and low ferns. I needed lots of vegetation, cutting his teeth beveled. For easier digestion, probably swallowed small rocks that were deposited in your belly and helped to turn plants into pulp. Although hard to imagine, experts have suggested that brachiosaurids like this, roamed in herds slowly advancing. Surely the ground shake under their feet. The sheer size of an animal as this dinosaur probably deterred most predators living at the time. But if one is away from the bequest, was exposed to grave danger. On the inside of his legs, like those of elephants, had a sharp claw. With an accurate kick and a flick of its tail flexible, could bring down his enemy. Measuring up to 30 meters long and a little more than 15 high. It lived about 145 million years, at the end of the Jurassic period in North America.

Curious: There is another dinosaur called Ultrsaurus, but not the same, is smaller and fossils found in Asia.

Henodus chelyops.

Henodus chelyops ("Turtle-Faced Single Tooth") was a placodont of the Late Triassic period during the Carnian stage. Fossils of Henodus chelyops were found in Tübingen, Germany. It was around 1 metre (3.3 ft) in length.
Henodus was the placodont that had the greatest (albeit superficial) resemblance to a turtle. Like turtles, it had a shell formed from a plastron on the underside and a carapace on top. The carapace extended well beyond the limbs, and was made up of individual plates of bony scutes covered by plates of horn. However, the shell was composed of many more pieces of bone than that of turtles, forming a mosaic pattern. The armor was fused to its spine, and its limbs were situated in normal positions, unlike the turtle, where they are located inside the ribcage. The weak limbs of Henodus suggest it spent little, if any time on land.
Henodus chelyops also had a single tooth on each side of its mouth, though the remaining teeth were replaced by a beak. These teeth were flat to crush bottom dwelling shellfish. The head was squared-off at the front, just ahead of the eyes.
Henodus is the only placodont thus far found in non-marine deposits, suggesting it may have lived in brackish or freshwater lagoons.


Helicoprion is a prehistoric cartilaginous fish that first appeared in the Carboniferous ocean finally extinguished in the Late Triassic, about 225 million years.
Helicoprion is thought may have reached a size of about 7 meters long and about 2 tons.
Since you do not have any skull, his way of feeding or predation techniques fall within the realm of speculation. One hypothesis is that fed on ammonites and their teeth were specialized in the task of breaking the shells of these animals.
Have been found in many parts of the world, which indicates its success in a given period.

Here I leave some pictures of different artists and their fossils.


The Therizinosaurus was a bipedal animal with vicious prehistoric claws was found in Mongolia (Asia)
THE Therizinosaurus measuring up to 12 m long. His weight was up to 6 tons. The total arm measured 2.5 meters long, and his only scythe-shaped claw measuring 70 centimeters in outer curve. That length does not include the horny covering that must have surrounded the claw, with which it could reach up to 1 meter long.

Therizinosaurus ( "scythe lizard") lived in the Cretaceous (for about 70 to 65 million years in the Maastrichtian).

He lived together with other prehistoric animals like the striking resemblance and Erlikosaurus Segnosaurus.

Are unknown Therizinosaurus eating habits. These are unknown as fossils found in was not found remains that may determine your diet. He may have been herbivorous although the claws may be possessed for the struggle to defend territory or to mate, even to defend themselves from predators like the Tarbosaurus.


The Ceratosaurus had skulls with a structure similar to the dorsal horn on the snout, centrally placed in the nasal cast. They had fused sacral bones (Synsacrum) and the pelvic bones together and held together this structure. A row of small bony nodules or osteoderms were presented under the middle of the back.

The Ceratosaurus could have competed with Allosaurus and Torvosaurus for the same prey (giant sauropods Diplodocus, Apatosaurus and Camarasaurus), but this was smaller by about 6 to 8 meters in length, 2.5 in height, and weighing from 500 kg to 1 tonne would have an ecological niche occupied separately from their larger cousins. Moreover, the Ceratosaurus had a longer body and supple, with a tail shaped like a crocodile. This suggests that was a better swimmer and Torvosaurus Allosaurus. A recent study showed that Robert Bakker Ceratosaurus dams usually hunted waterfowl, such as fish and reptiles, but also had great potential to feed on dinosaurs. The study also indicates that adults and juveniles sometimes ate together. This evidence is, of course, very debatable and Ceratosaurus teeth marks are very common in large dams fossils of dinosaurs on land. Another common theory is that the Ceratosaurus has preyed primarily on Dryosaurus, Camptosaurus, and other ornithopods, since it seems a Lonely Hunter adults unable to break down sauropods. An alternative is that the ceratosaur eat carrion of large bodies of sauropods, displacing small small predators.

Ceratosaurus ("lagarto cornudo") que vivieron a finales del período Jurásico, hace aproximadamente 152 y 145 millones de años, en el Kimeridgiano y el Titoniano, en lo que hoy es Norteamérica, África y posiblemente en Europa.
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