Showing posts with label Africa. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Africa. Show all posts

Rhamphorhynchus







What would you think if you walking down a lonely street, hear a deafening roar, a wrenching and inhuman scream and scared to lift the head, could see the creature we see up above.

The options are many:


  • Some mad scientist has mixed the DNA of various beings and created this abomination. 
  • You are hallucinating and think that mixing alcohol with sleeping pills are not a good idea. 
  • Or, the most likely option. It has breached spacetime that has joined your space-time now with the space-time Earth 150,000 years ago. Facilitating the passage of this prehistoric be watching you from the roof.



Because that's the most likely possibility, I see the urgency of what this should you ever be wrong with you. 

This prehistoric flying animal called Rhamphorhynchus, translated into our language, would mean lizard "Muzzle Duck". 



The Rhamphorhynchus was one of the first pterosaurs and its features that distinguish it from other pterosaurs, we highlight its longer than normal tail. Of course, his mouth is also very peculiar. The duck-shaped, flat and wide mouth (though with long, spiny teeth) would be a good tool for catching fish. There are experts who claim that they were not so specialized, and their diet was more varied.

The other important difference from most modern pterosaurs is that the crest did not Rhamphorhynchus neither bone nor cartilage or anything. I had no intention to leave it. 
Stands and this flying lizard reach up to our chest and wing span was almost 2 meters. 
He lived in what is now Europe and Africa in the Jurassic.

Rugops


Not all prehistoric animals are frightening Tyrannosaurus, Allosaurus and Spinosaurios ... no, there are others .... but those do not interest us today (MUAHAHAHA) .... we want blood, claws, large teeth and formidable carnivores able to intimidate only imagine. Let the beasts that we like, for example, to Rugops. This prehistoric animal of the Cretaceous (about 95 million years ago), lived in Africa and is a terrible theropod (like the T-Rex for example) family of abelisaurs (lizards Abel) ...

While Rugops (wrinkled face) was large: it could reach 8 feet long and weighs same as a hippo, never got the position of dominant predator. As we have said, lived in Africa, and in that time there was another predator floating around .... the Spinosaurus.

It is this reason that some experts think it may be more of a scavenger rather than a predator ... but do not really understand how they have come to that conclusion. Right now, today, we see that the lion is bigger than a hyena, hyena hunting but even more than the lion.
Other features of this carnivore is that had small arms ... now I can say "Most theropods have small arms." Yes, true, but the Rugops was an animal with proportionately still smaller forelimbs, were little more than stumps .... to give you an idea, our arms are longer than the arms of Rugops. And considering that I could reach 9 meters is simple we get an idea of ​​their hands ... or little claws.

Moreover, as the name suggests, its skull had a half meter bony protuberances, full of venous capillaries that gave its a gruesome appearance, as if it were bad and deformed film.

Finally, some authors believe that had spikes on the neck and tail. Although they found no evidence of this, nor of barbs or inserts .... but hey, maybe that is because lately it is changing the conception we had of the saurian, such as T. Rex, is probably had therefore also the Triceratops, a few years ago it was learned that Velociraptor had feathers ... anyway. 

Below, Spinosaurio having hunted and waiting for the bottom Rugops their cake.

Sauroniops

Who has not seen The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring? Or The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers? o The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King?, probably all have seen and certainly know who Sauron. The science fiction character created by Tolkien and that is the representation of evil. Its eye is all-seeing, is the eye of the devil on earth.


Well curiously, there was a dinosaur that, when discovered, was baptized with the name of Sauroniops, which means "Eye of Sauron". Personally I look weird, I find it very curious that have given the name of a science fiction character to a prehistoric animal, well known for it. So I've been investigating why this curious name and I discovered something: this saurian bones were found a few years ago, in Morocco (Africa) and at first had only one bone, the top of the skull closed eye and I had conical pyramid shape (reminiscent of Mordor mountain), so researchers, in a moment of inspiration, decided to borrow the name of Sauron for naming this prehistoric animal.

Well, part of this curiosity, how was the Sauroniops?

This was a theropod and theropod. The was a large theropod dinosaurs group with common characteristics such as walking with strong hind legs and essentially carnivores. A group where we can meet other dinosaurs like T-Rex or Giganotosaurus.

The species Sauroniops pachytholus, could reach up to 13 meters (42 ft)  and the skull could exceed 1.5 meters (5 ft) in length. A powerful bite of a mouth full of sharp teeth as knives adapted for tearing the body of their prey.

A physical characteristic that would help to distinguish it from other theropods (and in particular of other Carcharodontosaurios, physically very similar) was the bulge protruding from the top of the skull and that was the inspiration for its name. We look like a small T.Rex but one bump on the head.

Dinocrocuta



Well okay, I know that lately I talk a lot of hyenas, if the giant hyena or brevirostris, if Chasmaporthetes including I talk about the evolution LINK. But the animal from which I will talk today is not exactly a hyena, but almost almost (is in the same sub).Let's talk Dinocrocuta, which literally translated for me, means "Hyena terrible."

If the spotted hyena is an animal bite with a power far superior to that of other carnivores of the same size, Dinocrocuta, had a bite even higher. No broken bones, triturated like a herbivore grinds the beans and branches. You just have to take a look at his skull.




The skull was tremendous, huge, note that the strong mandibles look like an elephant but with fangs that look like projectiles. If you have that jaw so wide is to hold the attachments of muscles breakers incredibly powerful and if you have those huge fangs was to withstand the great pressure exerted by the jaws. Possibly one of the largest land mammals with bite force of all time, rather than the Megistotherium, the Androwsarcus and equating to Daeodon or pork terrible.


But this skull to hold the neck and body should be titanic. It is estimated that weighed up to 400 kg (1200 lb). Maybe that will not say anything, but keep in mind that the hyena does not exceed 90kg now, and the lions of Africa, do not exceed 300 kg (900 lb). It is true that during the Miocene, there were other large predators and large herbivores that had fed. And the best thing to have an idea, it's back to the comparisons:

Lion, Dinocrocuta, Cave Lion and  Cave Bear.

As shown in the picture, the skull of Dinocrocuta is almost as big as the cave lion and almost the same as the Cave Bear ... but if you look properly on, will see that the bones are more robust. This means that it was perhaps a top predator of its time.

As I said, the Dinocrocuta lived in the late Miocene in Africa, Asia and Europe. And actively hunted large animals, herbivores and carnivores. Animals like the woolly rhinoceros (which bones have been found with tooth marks posilizados of Dinocrocuta cured, so it is given an active role in not only hunting and predator) the Paraceratherium, the Platybelodon, Calicoterios Anisonodon and even the great mammoth.

Giraffatitan


Giraffatitan, I think everyone intuit the meaning of the name: Giraffe Titan. This sauropod be at least elongated. For a long time was considered a Brachiosaurus, a prehistoric animal considering for years the largest of all terrestrial dinosaurs. In fact, Wikipedia definitions and descriptions for Giraffatitan Braquiosaurus and is the same.

The only species of the genus is called brancai Giraffatitan measured 25 meters long and 13 tall. That means you could poke your head perfectly by a fourth floor window. And its weight is estimated at 37 tonnes maximum

.
Unlike other sauropods, had a constitution similar to that of current giraffes with long forelimbs and a long neck, which probably used to feed in the tops of the trees had spatulate teeth very suitable for diet . His skull has many holes, probably to reduce their weight to be a neck support 10 meters long.

The similarities with other sauropods ranging from a small brain compared to his body and he was a vegetarian who ate hundreds of pounds of conifers, ferns, horsetails and ginkgo or bennetites.





He lived in the Upper Jurassic in what is now Africa.

Carcharodontosaurus

The word "Megalodon" means big tooth and its scientific name is Carcharodon megalodon tooth mean much sharp (or sharp). Knowing this, it is easy to know why the name of this prehistoric animal: the Carcharodontosaurus which means lizard with sharp teeth.

An animal with this name can only be a hunter, a predator, why would an herbivore have fangs ...?

Carcharodontosaurus was not a second predator. In fact, the family that was part (Carcharodontosauridae) appeared some of the largest known land predators, such as Giganotosaurus, the Mapusaurus and tiranotitán. All these strong predatory theropods that reigned over other animals in their geographic areas and their corresponding time.

His appearance was fierce, and tanmaño negligible. I could measure up to 12 meters long, weigh up to 4 tons, and 4 meters high. To give you an idea, the T. Rex measured 14 meters long and of course heavier, but has anyone ever think that it was a lizard Carcharodontosaurus hardly any importance in the world of prehistoric predators. Carcharodontosaurus also had one of the largest skulls of carnivorous dinosaurs. And the larger relative to its size. A skull of 1.5 meters, about 10 cm less than the Giganotosaurus, which measured up to 18 meters long. Besides his jaw pressure is estimated at 3.5 tonnes and full of jagged teeth like those of sharks could tear flesh but was protected with scales, so their prey died bled also had sharp claws his hands as hooks butcher to support a victim while its jaws tore.


Other data supporting this was a good predator:

The carcarodontosaurios had a two dimensional view, as any good hunter. They had like a long, muscular legs, and trace fossils indicate that they could run up to 30 km / h, but now this is controversial.



Finally, we should not make myths of T. Rex, Spinosaurus, Allosaurus or Giganotosaurus, because after all other dinosaurs were able to shadow them, as the Carcharodontosaurus.

Carcharodontosaurus lived in Africa during the Cretaceous.

The Platybelodon, an ancestor of the elephant.

The Platybelodon was one of the ancestors that gave rise to modern elephants, though not unique, but so is the strangest appearance.

The Platybelodon was herbivorous, and like the current hippos, spent much time in the swamp water where they feed on aquatic plants. One of the most curious features of this animal from the Miocene was his two bottom teeth shovel-shaped. Two teeth were disproportionately long and wide, however, the teeth (protruding into the mammoths, mastodons and elephants) were small and insignificant.
Another use of these teeth is lower than was to grab the trunk and branches, serrated rubbing against the lower teeth to cut the tree.

Robust and heavy as a small elephant, it can weigh over a ton and a half and could grow to 2 meters high. As I said before, lived during the Miocene, from 15-4 million years, and lived in Africa, Europe, Asia and North America. Although it thrived during his time, did not survive beyond the Miocene. Although no one knows exactly why he died.
In any case, this curious animal, this ancestor of the elephant, the mastodon or mammoth, is an example of the diversity and richness of fauna in prehistoric times.

Megistotherium


The Andrewsarchus or Androsarcus, was considered the largest carnivorous mammal history, but that position was occupied not alone. Along with this there is another giant carnivorous mammal, called Megistotherium (and some experts say it could even be larger than the Andrewsarchus). The Megistotherium was a terrible predator, a predator who struck fear Miocene to the titanic mastodons (found fossilized bones of mastodons with Megistotherium marks indicating that hunting for food).
The Megistotherium belonged to the family of Hyaenodontidae, a family of large predators, strong, aggressive and courageous. Predators that were in the top of the food chain before the mega saber-toothed cats like, or the greatest, the cave lion.
The Megistotherium lived in what is now Europe, Africa and Asia. As large as the current bison, weigh up to 1500 kg (3300 lb) and a height to the shoulders of more than 1.5 meters long and 3.5 (a white bear almost never reaches 1000 kg (2200 lb) and is 2.5 meters long). The dimensions of the skull were Megistotherium up to 1 meter long (similar to Androsarcus) and his jaw with a force of enormous pressure, harbored very powerful teeth can grind the hardest parts of prey such as bones or hooves. Do not forget that the family is synonymous Hyaenodontidae hyena's tooth, and these (the hyenas) are known for the strength of their jaws and teeth trituratodo. To get an idea, your name, Megistotherium, means "the biggest beast crushed bones."

Kaprosuchus saharicus.

Kaprosuchus saharicus was a huge crocodile that lived in the Upper Cretaceous in Niger (Africa). This dinosaur is not extremely large as it could be other prehistoriccrocodiles as Deinosuchus or Sarcosuchus Imperator. "Only"average 6 meters but what is striking is his face. He had a terrible predator face, large protruding teethabove and below the jaw and a rough bump on the snout (emerging from thesquamous and parietal) giving it an aggressive appearance that recalls when wolvesbaring their teeth defensive position . We, as the most terrible dragon fantasy filmstoday.

Another difference between the Kaprosuchus saharicus and other crocodiles is thatthe basins of the hojos projected forward, not upward. Had stereoscopic vision, similar to the hunters like lions or wolves.
In fact, this animal was a predator prehistoric Earth, but also water. Because land isattributed hunter strong legs that allowed him to pursue their prey with great speed and run at a certain height from the ground (to be cococrilo).

Finally, thanks to their appearance, their disproportionately large, sharp fangs, was given the name of Kaprosuchus, meaning crocodile boar. Referring to the tusks of theboars that tend to stand out from the muzzle. And saharicus that their bones werefound in the Sahara.

Hyena giant or Pachycrocuta Brevirostris.


Famous is the force that have the jaws of the hyenas that can reach pressures of 350 kg (600lb)and teeth grinding of hard bones and teeth and hooves. Well, now imagine a hyena twice as big, twice as strong and a powerful jaw twice ... this animal there was Pachycrocuta brevirostris.



Pachycrocuta a genus of prehistoric hyenas. The largest specimen, well-documented part of the species of giant hyenas Pachycrocuta brevirostris. With a height of 1 meter (39 in) and weigh up to 120 kg (250 lb).Un similar in size to a small lioness.
This size would make it the largest of the hyenas that have ever lived. He lived from the Middle Pliocene and Middle Pleistocene, about 3 million and 500,000 years ago.
Found fossils in Eurasia and southern and eastern Africa. In dens, caves used as dens.
Scavenger and a predator could be stubborn and tenacious to deer hunting big and small package was probably a hunter of large animals (up to larger deer and occasionally as Megaloceros). The chance of a scavenger is sensed it was a very big animal not built for chasing prey over long distances. In this aspect would have differed from today spotted hyena, which is a more agile animal that, contrary to his image of the documentaries, also kills his own food. Apparently it was ecologically close enough to the smaller (but still important) in relation perrieri Pliocrocuta never found as fossils contemporaries in the same region.

This is a very beautiful reconstruction extracted qi.com

Megalosaurus.


Megalosaurus was a predator of some up to 10 meters long and weighing 1 t. He lived in what is now Europe, America, Asia and Africa during the Jurassic period, 181 made 169 million years.
Among their prizes were sauropods, large prehistoric animals and stegosaurs and mammals.
Besides being a fast predator, with speeds that could reach 40 km / h thanks to its well-balanced structure, the Megalosaurus also got their food scavenging.
The Megalosaurus was one of the first dinosaur discoveries, England 1818. At that time, and seeing the fossils found, these bones were so enormous that gave its name Megalosaurus (great lizard).
The jaw of Megalosaurus had teeth long and curved, strongly subject to the gums to avoid losing in the struggle. The teeth were sharp with the corrugated edge that worked like a saw. Ripping a more efficient prey.
To make matters worse, had prehistoric animal with sharp claws and tear that held the hard skin of the victims.

Pterodactylus.



Pterodactylus is a genus of pterosaur (the first to be named and identified as a flying reptile) that lived during the late Jurassic Period. Fossils have been discovered in Europe and Africa.Its name refers to the long finger that holds the wing-like membrane bats. It was a carnivore and probably preyed upon fish and other small animals.

Pterodactylus was a relatively small pterosaur genus, with adult wingspans ranging from 50 centimeters (1.5 ft) in P. kochi to 2.4 meters (8 ft) in P. grandis

Pterodactylus was found to have a striated soft-tissue crest on the skull. Soft tissue impressions also showed unusually long, sharp, and recurved keratin sheaths on its claws. It was covered in hair-like integument, with a mane of longer hair running down the back of its neck.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pterodactylus

Mosasaurus


Mosasaurus was among the last mosasaur genera, and among the largest. The skull was more robustly built than other mosasaurs, as the mandibles articulated very tightly with the skull. It had a deep, barrel-shaped body, and with its fairly large eyes, poor binocular vision, and poorly developed olfactory bulbs, experts believe that Mosasaurus lived near the ocean surface, where it preyed on fish, turtles, ammonites, and possibly smaller mosasaurs. The animal remained near the surface and although it was able to dive, it evidentially did not venture into deeper waters.

The skull of Mosasaurus tapered off into a short, conical process, and the jaws were armed with massive, sharp, conical teeth. Their paddle-like limbs had five digits in front and four in back. The trunk terminated in a strong tail which, together with serpentine undulation of the whole body, contributed far more to the animal's locomotion that did the limbs.

Because of its robust skull and tightly articulating jaws, Mosasaurus was unable to swallow prey-items whole in the manner of earlier mosasaurs, such as Tylosaurus[citation needed]. Instead, with the aid of its curved, knife-like teeth, Mosasaurus was able to tear its prey into more manageable pieces that could be more easily swallowed.

Mosasaurus ("lizard of the Meuse River") was a genus of mosasaur, a carnivorous, aquatic lizard, somewhat resembling a flippered crocodile, with elongated heavy jaws. The genus lived in the Maastrichtian age of the Cretaceous period (Mesozoic era), around 70-65 millions years ago in the area of modern Western Europe.



As with most mosasaurs, their legs and feet are modified into hydrofoil-like flippers, with the forelimbs larger than the hindlimbs. Like its American relatives Tylosaurus and Hainosaurus, Mosasaurus reached lengths of about 17 meters.

Pareiasaurus


Pareiasaurus large quadruped, about 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) long, with elephantine legs, walking in a typically reptilian posture. Its skull had several spine- and wart-like protrusions. The scales may have provided some protection against predators. Pareiasaurus's leaf-shaped teeth, ideal for biting through tough plant fibers, indicate it was a herbivore. Even the palate had teeth.
Pareiasaurus is an extinct genus of anapsid reptile from the Permian period. It was a typical member of its family, the pareiasaurs, which take their name from this genus.

Pareiasaurs appear very suddenly in the fossil record. It is clear that these animals evolved from Rhipaeosaurs to fill the large herbivore niche (or guild) that had been occupied early in the Permian period by the Caesid pelycosaurs and before then the Diadectid amphibians and Edaphosaur reptiles. In fact it may well have been the extinction of the Caesids created an ecological vacuum that enabled the Pareiasaurs to appear and suddenly diversify as rapidly as they did (within the span of only two million years).

It has been often suggested that these animals were semi-aquatic.

It has recently been argued that Pareiasaurs may have evolved into turtles. They had turtle-like skull features, and several genera had bony plates in the skin, possibly the first signs of a turtle shell. However, the case for turtle ancestry is not proven.

Probably, the Pareiasaurus were the victims of Titanophoneus.
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