HAIKOUICHTHYS


The name "Haikouichthys" comes from the Greek: "Ichthys" which means fish "Fish of the Chinese city of Haikou". And you put that name is very characteristic. I mean, a fish is a fish, and you do not name it except that fish being fish special. And here it is ... because the Haikouichthys is the first fish of evolution. Not only that, it is also one of the first vertebrates that existed, and which all others come from trout, shark, elephant, hen, you and me.

Anyway, this post, the first vertebrate, the first fish of prehistory, he shares with his contemporary, the Pikaia. Both of others lived in the Cambrian, appeared at the beginning of the famous Cambrian explosion of life. 530 million years ago.

The Haikouichthys, was not a giant of the oceans, in fact, was about 2.5 cm (3 in). With your thumb we could have ended the life of one of the most important animal in the history of evolution.

(It occurs to me cuanticocosmictemporal dysfunction, if we traveled back in time to 530 million years ago and we killed the fish in Haikou that evolved in all vertebrates, we would not exist, and therefore we could not kill the Haikouichthys, so he would survive and we too .... anyway ... I do not follow me head implodes and the blog is not about that).


A further feature is that Haikouichthys had a distinct head of the body. Until then, prehistoric animals seemed tubes, it was not known or where to eat or where defecated ... at first glance. And far fewer had a clear center differential that controlled the other body part. But with the Haikouichthys this was more evident. Had a head, eyes and mouth of millimeters. And then a "long" body with dorsal and pectoral fin that served to move like fish in water.

The movement is really important. We must bear in mind that at the beginning of the Cambrian, most of the oceans was occupied by large arthropods, sponges or slow and slimy worms. And suddenly, a small chordate appears, a young vertebrate with a capacity that others had: was agile and quick. And though not great, thanks to its speed and agility, he could escape their large predators and become the main protagonist in the formation of large animal phyla: vertebrates.

Rhamphorhynchus







What would you think if you walking down a lonely street, hear a deafening roar, a wrenching and inhuman scream and scared to lift the head, could see the creature we see up above.

The options are many:


  • Some mad scientist has mixed the DNA of various beings and created this abomination. 
  • You are hallucinating and think that mixing alcohol with sleeping pills are not a good idea. 
  • Or, the most likely option. It has breached spacetime that has joined your space-time now with the space-time Earth 150,000 years ago. Facilitating the passage of this prehistoric be watching you from the roof.



Because that's the most likely possibility, I see the urgency of what this should you ever be wrong with you. 

This prehistoric flying animal called Rhamphorhynchus, translated into our language, would mean lizard "Muzzle Duck". 



The Rhamphorhynchus was one of the first pterosaurs and its features that distinguish it from other pterosaurs, we highlight its longer than normal tail. Of course, his mouth is also very peculiar. The duck-shaped, flat and wide mouth (though with long, spiny teeth) would be a good tool for catching fish. There are experts who claim that they were not so specialized, and their diet was more varied.

The other important difference from most modern pterosaurs is that the crest did not Rhamphorhynchus neither bone nor cartilage or anything. I had no intention to leave it. 
Stands and this flying lizard reach up to our chest and wing span was almost 2 meters. 
He lived in what is now Europe and Africa in the Jurassic.

Dreadnoughtus.


We found another giant dino in Argentia. A country where we found a large dinosaurs such as Argentinosaurus, Giganotosaurus, the Tyrannotitán or Madtsodia Bai, all with records in size and can be many sauropods, theropods, or the serpent, the world's largest.

The name of the great saurian, a large sauropod and what some call "the king of the dinosaurs," has been named to Dreadnoughtus, which could translate as "he who fears nothing."


Maybe call it "the king of the dinosaurs" is a bit exaggerated. Mostly because if there was a king, this could be the Argentinosaurus, a saurian also found in Patagonia Argentina but measuring up to 35 meters in length; this is about 8 meters more than Dreadnoughtus measuring 26 meters. We must clarify that the measures that have been extracted from fossils found, and it seems, could be a copy would not be fully developed, so it can even be bigger or heavier.

If we compare the weights, Dreadnoughtus reaches 65 tons. And the Argentinosaurus perfectly exceeded 100 tons, some estimates put it at 130 tonnes.



Dreadnoughtus What do we know?

First of all note a curiosity, the name refers to one of the battleships armed Argentina: monocaliber battleships. But do not mix ....

What is striking is that this prehistoric animal were recently discovered, and not one or two bones as usual, but much of the skeleton. It has been found 70% of the skeleton, also in very good condition and its deformation (by the weight of the earth) is minimal. In fact, it has provided new information about the pelvis, extremities and shoulder girdle of Titanosauria family. A family that owned the Dreadnoughtus but also Diplodocus, Giraffatitan or Argentinosaurus.

They were large herbivores that dominated the earth, like all sauropods. Elongated necks and stylized whiplike tails. A highlight feature of this lizard, was that its neck was compared with other sauropods, a bit thicker and more muscular.


The great saurian lived in the forests of what is now South America 75 million years (Cretaceous) ago.

Cynodonts

Before the Jurassic period, the great age of the dinosaurs, we find the Triassic, not as well known but very interesting events. In this period when the continents are separated from Pangea, facilitating new diversity of different species. During the Triassic mammal-like reptiles disappeared or mammal-like reptiles ... a type of animal that are midway between mammals and reptiles, and it was late in the period when the first dinosaurs dinosaurs (again because it gives me the wins).


An example of these reptiles mamiferoides disappeared are cynodonts. The cynodont is a missing link between reptiles and mammals, in fact, its name literally means "dog teeth" and if we saw it, we remind some kind of dachshund with a little alopecia. It is an animal that does not exceed one meter in length, with a small, thick tail of about 30 cm. It fed on insects and small reptiles.

When it ran, its back was moving from side to side like a lizard running (just imagine a komodo dragon running); but its body has hair and live in burrows with his beloved spouse, like mammals.

Another feature of this prehistoric animal and half mammal, half reptile, is the offspring. The couple lived cynodont within a burrow, and inside this put the eggs were hatching, like most reptiles. However, when pups out breaking the shell, they were totally dependent on their parents. For example we see that existing crocodiles out of the burrow and are adults but reduced, however, the size of most mammals are born and take time to break away from the mother because they are dependent and need to develop a strategy is more ... survival differently. Well so do the cynodonts, pup birth three months are left sucking the milk from the glands of the mother and not leave the den until they are developed enough. This is a clever way that the offspring is not threatened by predators that may have the outside world.


How I love the picture above, it is as if it were a super-predator, dangerous and totally unscrupulous murderer mammiform. But let's face it, maybe it was like in the image below.


The importance of these mammal-like reptiles, is that these small mammals evolve and hairy (the size of mice or squirrels), since dinosaurs were the kings of the food chain for 160 million years. You and I probably have in our genes the essence of cynodonts.

Aphelops



This is probably the last prehistoric animal of which I write until I get back from vacation, however, I mustered all my strength (which are already few when you look approaching the holidays) and have compiled enough information to get an idea of ​​this creature surprising. The name of this animal is to Aphelops Mutilus.

What does your name?

How ever we have seen, the name that experts give some prehistoric animals are simple, then put them in Latin or Greek, and it looks like something out of a more sensible work all palontólogo scholar and scientist. Nooooo, I do not mean this ... Mutilus, which is mutilated, and Greek + Ops aphelēs soft face. If we put all of this creature's name can be translated as the soft face mutilated. Actually, this name refers to the impression given paleontologists who discovered its remains for the first time. Found a rhinoceros, huge, which was lacking something, I had no horn ... hence the name soft mutilated face ... and how was it?

Well, as I said, it was a rhinoceros, an ancestor of the white rhino and black, but also the woolly rhinoceros. Easily exceeded 4.2 meters long (14 ft.) and was close to 3 meters tall (9 ft,). They were immense.

A large male white rhino can exceed 3,000 kg (6.600 lb), but easily surpassed Aphelops 4 tons (8.800 lb). Its constitution was robust, the larger body and smaller legs. Looked more like a hippo rhino.

Petite legs, big, round and with a huge rib cage body, without much hump like a rhinoceros. In fact, after analyzing the skeleton and teeth, experts concluded that the Aphelops Mutilus spent much of their time in the water, as hiccups live. Once out, he would be helpless, despite its large size, face formidable predators as Hyaenodon or Entelodon (or giant boar). If only I had a horn to defend ...

This large herbivore existed in the Miocene, between 20 and 5 million behind in what is now North America. Besides Aphelops Mutilus have been classified two species: Aphelops malacorhinus and Aphelops megalodus.
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